This “live” bibliography aims to map the study of human rights impact. We see this as a group effort and a service to the scholarly and advocacy community. Towards this end ISHR welcomes suggestions of additional materials. Please email your suggestions to with “Human Rights Impact Research” in the subject line. Thank you.

Methods and Tools Relating to Human Rights Impact

Measurement, Assessing the Status of Rights, and Monitoring Compliance

Human Rights – General

Cingranelli, D., & Richards, D. (2009). The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset. Available online at:

The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset contains standards-based quantitative information on government respect for 13 internationally recognized human rights for 195 countries, annually from 1981-2004. It is designed for use by scholars and students who seek to test theories about the causes and consequences of human rights violations, as well as policy makers and analysts who seek to estimate the human rights effects of a wide variety of institutional changes and public policies including democratization, economic aid, military aid, structural adjustment, and humanitarian intervention. It was updated and expanded in August 2005 and, pending adequate support, will be annually thereafter.

Kaplan, R., Offen, D., & Kaltarrant.(2008). Analyzer. (Version 2.1) [Computer Software] Palo Alto: Human Rights Data Analysis Group. Available online at:

Analyzer is used to collect, maintain and analyze information about large-scale human rights violations. The methodology and concepts behind this application are based on the efforts and techniques that have been pioneered for over a decade by human rights professionals in countries all over the world. The software is deployed at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Campaign for Good Governance in Sierra Leone, member non-governmental organizations of the Human Rights Accountability Coalition (HRAC) in Sri Lanka, and the Boroumand Foundation for the Promotion of Human Rights and Democracy in Iran based in Washington DC.

Lindelow, M. (2002). Holding Governments to Account: Public Expenditure Analysis for Advocacy. London: Save the Children UK.

This publication provides an introduction to public expenditure analysis and advocacy for NGO practitioners. It begins by clearly explaining how budgets and public spending processes work, both in theory and in practice, with an emphasis on developing countries. It goes on to look at different approaches to analysing public expenditure including aggregate public spending, allocation of resources within and between sectors, benefit-incidence, cost effectiveness and cost-benefits. The final section looks at how this analysis can be used to highlight where government spending patterns are not consistent with their stated aims or are inequitable, and at how to promote budget reform and increased participation in the budget process. The extensive glossary of technical terms, from budget compliance to fungibility, helps demystify the subject and where these terms appear in the text they are highlighted, aiding its use. Further readings, including web resources, are signposted at the end of each chapter.

Metagora. Inventory of Initiatives Aimed at Measuring Human Rights and Democratic Governance. [Online database]. OECD, Paris21, Metagora. Available online at:

The main objective of this database is to provide relevant information and networking tools to the organisations and individuals who are implementing or planning to implement evidence-based assessment of human rights and democratic governance. The inventory contains information on the scope, aims, methods and outcomes of recent and current initiatives launched in the five continents.

The database is based on a first series of responses to a world-wide Metagora survey and it will be continuously updated and expanded. Information is organized under three broad categories of democracy, governance, and human rights. Sub-categories include country and human rights theme.

Office of the High Commission for Human Rights. (2001). Training Manual on Human Rights Monitoring. (OHCHR Professional Training Series No. 7. ISBN 92-1-154137-9) United Nations: New York. Retrieved from:

This Training Manualprovides practical guidance principally for the conduct of human rights monitoring in United Nations field operations, but it may also be useful to other human rights monitors.

UNDP.(2000). Using Indicators for Human Rights Accountability, Chapter 5 of the UN Human Development Report. New York: UNDP. Retrieved from:

Under Article 55 of the UN Charter, all UN members commit to promote “universal respect for, and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction.” But to what extent do they put this into practice? When a country is making progress in development, who is to say whether or not its rate of progress is adequate? In this chapter of the UNDP’s Human Development Report for 2000, statistical indicators are presented as a powerful tool in the struggle for human rights.

Civil and Political Rights

Amnesty International and the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa. (2000). Ukweli: Monitoring and Documenting Human Rights Violations in Africa. A Guide Book. Amsterdam & Dakar: Amnesty International & CODESRIA. Retrieved from:

The Handbook is divided into several booklets. The first booklet includes generic chapters on monitoring, fact-finding and documenting human rights violations. It identifies and defines steps involved in researching human rights violations, discusses principles and standards of research and provides guidelines for interviewing survivors and witnesses. It also gives suggestions on how to address the problems and challenges faced by human rights monitors. The other booklets each focus on monitoring and documenting specific types of human rights abuses. At the time of writing, five booklets are in preparation, focusing on civil and political rights: 7 (i) political killings, (ii) torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, (iii) death in custody, (iv) excessive use of force, and (v) sexual violence. A number of others are planned, such as human rights violations in armed conflicts and children’s rights violations.

Freedom House. (2006). Freedom in the World. Methodology. Washington DC: Freedom House. Retrieved from:

The Freedom in the World survey provides an annual evaluation of the state of global freedom as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom—the opportunity to act spontaneously in a variety of fields outside the control of the government and other centers of potential domination —according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. This website provides a brief explanation of research and review process, ratings process, general characteristics of each political rights and civil liberties rating, questionnaires, and guidelines of the survey.

Giffard, C. (2000). The Torture Reporting Handbook: How to document and respond to allegations of torture within the international system for the protection of human rights. Essex: Essex University. Retrieved from:

The Torture Reporting Handbook is a reference guide for anyone who wishes to know how to take action in response to allegations of torture or ill-treatment. It explains simply and clearly how the process of reporting and submitting complaints to international bodies and mechanisms actually works, and how to make the most of it: how you might go about documenting allegations, what you can do with the information once it has been collected, how to choose between the various mechanisms according to your particular objectives, and how to present your information in a way which makes it most likely that you will obtain a response.

Impunity Watch (2008). Research Instrument. Utrecht: Impunity Watch. Retrieved from:

IW tool offers a basic framework for researching the state of accountability in post-conflict societies. Six main research areas are covered:

  • normative framework
  • resources and capacities of pertinent state institutions
  • independence of these institutions and their willingness to fulfill their tasks
  • influence of interest groups
  • political will
  • societal factors

The enquiry addresses all four pillars of transitional justice: truth, justice, reparations and guarantees of non-recurrence. When designing this tool, IW has also been guided by a number of essential UN documents, which offer a framework for structural approach to reducing conflict-related impunity. Among these, by far the most important were the updated set of the UN Principles on Protection and Promotion of Human Rights through Actions to Combat Impunity.

Loudes, C., & Paradis, E. (2008) Handbook on Monitoring and Reporting Homophobic and Transphobic Incidents. Brussels: ILGA-Europe. Retrieved from:

This handbook is designed for human rights organisations intending to monitor the occurrence of homophobic and transphobic incidents and violence in order to advocate for legislative changes to increase legal protections from violence motivated by hatred towards lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people at national, European and international levels.

Nowicki M., & Fialova, Z. (2000). Human Rights Monitoring. Warsaw: Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

This book is about monitoring civil and political rights. It is primarily intended for use by non-governmental organizations of the “watch-dog” type, but it may also prove useful to state bodies that maintain supervision over how citizens” rights are respected- such as the ombudsman’s office, the respective parliamentary committees, etc.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2006). Rule of Law Tools for Post-Conflict States. Monitoring Legal Systems. Geneva: UN, OHCHR. Retrieved from:

This publication specifically addresses human rights monitoring of the justice system through the creation of a methodology. This tool is intended to reflect a comprehensive overview of the principles, techniques and approaches involved in legal systems monitoring, principles which have been primarily garnered from previous experience and lessons learned from United Nations, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and NGO legal systems monitoring programmes. The objective of this tool is to provide a framework for developing a monitoring programme to analyze institutions and the justice system as a whole from which good practices can be reinforced and bad practices or deficiencies addressed.

Parsons, J., Thornton, M., Bang, H., Estep, B., Williams, K., & Weiner, N. (2008). Developing Indicators to Measure the Rule of Law: A Global Approach. New York: Vera Institute of Justice. Retrieved from:

In recent years, performance indicators have emerged as a promising tool for tracking progress in key areas of governance, including the rule of law. With support from the American Bar Association’s World Justice Project, the Vera Institute of Justice partnered with three fellow Altus Global Alliance members to develop a set of 60 rule of law indicators —concrete measures designed to assess an abstract concept —and test them in four cities: Chandigarh, India; Lagos, Nigeria; Santiago, Chile; and New York City, U.S.

Prestholdt, J. (2004). Familiar Tools, Emerging Issues. Minnesota: Center for Victims of Torture, New Tactics Project. Retrieved from:

The Advocates for Human Rights uses traditional human rights monitoring methods to document human rights abuses, but this notebook explores how the group has also made a practice of adapting this methodology to emerging human rights issues. The Advocates have identified and developed practical and sustainable strategies for adapting human rights monitoring methods to address domestic violence (in Eastern Europe and the U.S.), child survival (in Mexico, Uganda and the U.S.) and transitional justice (in Peru)

Queensland Advocacy Incorporated. Towards Human Rights Indicators for Persons with Disability. Brisbane: Queensland Advocacy Incorporated Disabilities Studies and Research Institute. Retrieved from:

This paper reports the first stage of a multistage project that will develop a set of human rights indicators for Australians with disability derived from international human rights instruments to which the Australian Government is signatory. The project will then monitor the degree to which these indicators are present or absent in the Queensland environment through broad-based consultation with persons with disability and their associates. The overall aim of this project is to make visible the relationship between the lived experience of Queenslanders with disability and the international human rights standards accepted by the Australian Government.

Schaufelberger, E. & Bernath, B. (Eds.). (2004). Monitoring Places of Detention: A Practical Guide. Geneva: Association for the Prevention of Torture. Retrieved from:,com_docman/task,doc_download/gid,111/Itemid,59/lang,en/

Specific objectives are:

  • To provide concrete advice and recommendations on the methodology of visits through the different steps (preparation, implementation and follow-up);
  • To promote cooperation between different domestic visiting bodies, as well as between national and international bodies;
  • To present in a practical, thematic way the different international standards relevant to monitoring places of detention;
  • To provide information on the content of the OPCAT, which for the first time in an international human rights treaty sets out clear criteria and guarantees for the independence and effective functioning of “national preventive mechanisms”;
  • In so doing, to assist in preventing mechanisms being set up in a way that contradicts the OPCAT principles.

The guide is intended to deal with monitoring in any place where persons are deprived of their liberty. In practice, however, it focuses mainly on prisons and, in a more limited way, on police stations. Monitoring specific places such as psychiatric institutions, centers for juveniles or detained foreign nationals requires a specific approach, although some of the general concepts are applicable.

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights - General

Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development; Institute of International Education & International Human Rights Internship Program. (2000). Module 19 in Circle of Rights - Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Activism: A Training Resource. Washington DC: Institute of International Education, International Human Rights Internship Program. Available online at:

Blyberg, A., Hofbauer, H., & Krafchik, W. (2003). Dignity counts - A guide to using budget analysis to advance human rights. Mexico City; Washington DC: Fundar; International Budget Project; International Human Rights Internship Program. Retrieved from:

This guide - which has been developed by Fundar, the International Human Rights Internship Program and the International Budget Project - presents a tool for using budget analysis to help assess a government's compliance with its human rights obligations, in particular with regard to economic, social and cultural rights. It is meant to provide guidance to human rights workers as well as to those involved in applied budget work.

This step-by-step tool allows for analysing national budgets in order to assess governments' compliance with their obligations related to specific human rights. A case study is included in which the Mexican government's budget is assessed in relation to the right to health.

Hansen, S. (2000). Thesaurus of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. [Online database] New York: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Available online at:

Online tool that can be used to identify indicators for economic, social and cultural rights, but also to gather more information on economic, social and cultural rights. The tool was developed from the outset to enable NGOs to monitor violations of economic, social and cultural rights.

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. (2008). Guidelines for Preparation of Progress Indicators in the Area of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. (Doc. 14 rev. 1). Washington DC: Organization of American States. Retrieved from:

This document contains guidelines developed by the Commission for the evaluation and monitoring of economic, social, and cultural rights provided in the Protocol of San Salvador. The aim in so doing is to provide states parties, other agencies of the Inter-American system, and civil society organizations with a tool that serves not only as a basis for the presentation of reports under the Protocol, but also for the design of a permanent internal evaluation mechanism for each State party. These are methodological guidelines that are not intended to be exhaustive, but sufficiently extensive and open to permit the inclusion of adjustments and variations to cater to different local and regional contexts. The aim is to make indicators and qualitative signs of progress consistent with different realities in a context of broad participation and rigorous methodological transparency.


Abdullah, R. (2000). A Framework of Indicators for Action on Women's Health Needs and Rights after Beijing. Kuala Lumpur: ARROW.

ARROW's framework focuses on key Beijing recommendations within four priority areas: women's health and rights; sexual and reproductive health and rights; violence against women; and gender-sensitive health programs. These four areas were identified as the newer and more difficult areas of the women's health sections of the Beijing Platform for Action. Consequently, it is further categorized into its specific components. It is noted that for each component, indicators or measures of action have been developed since the Beijing Conference. Furthermore, the ARROW framework categorizes actions as either related to health service provision, use and quality; or national laws, policies, plans and regulations. Finally, the framework can be used a guide for a number of purposes such as in monitoring implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action; developing an organizational or country monitoring framework; ideas for action; and develop monitoring systems for Beijing implementation in non-health areas.

Asher, J. (2004). The Right to Health: A Resource Manual for NGOs. London: Commonwealth Medical Trust. Retrieved from:

This Resource Manual has been prepared for health-concerned NGOs worldwide. It has been designed in a flexible manner to serve as a manual, educational tool and a reference guide. It is organized into three main parts:

  • Part 1 is an introductory section, which provides basic information about the legal framework of human rights, human rights monitoring systems and the right to health.
  • Part 2 gives a detailed examination of the meaning and scope of government obligations arising from the right to health.
  • Part 3 contains hands-on information about how to work with the right to health. It provides strategies for monitoring and advocacy and guidance on how to work with monitoring tools.

Bakker S., & Plagman, H. (2008). Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument. Utrecht: Aim for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

The Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument (HeRWAI) is a strategic tool to enhance lobbying activities for better implementation of women’s health rights. A HeRWAI analysis links what actually happens with what should happen according to the human rights obligations of a country. It examines local, national and international influences.

The HeRWAI analysis consists of six steps, which analyze a policy that influences women’s health rights. Each step consists of information and questions to guide the analysis. Explanations, examples and checklists facilitate the answering of the questions. The analysis produces a set of recommendations to improve the impact of the policy, as well as an action plan to lobby for adoption of the recommendations and to raise awareness about the findings of the analysis.

De Bruyn, M. (2006). Fulfilling Reproductive Rights for Women Affected by HIV/AIDS: A Tool for Monitoring Progress Toward Three Millennium Development Goals. Chapel: Ipas. Retrieved from:

This document is organized as follows:

  • Section 1 introduces the relevant MDGs and neglected areas of reproductive health.
  • Section 2 provides the benchmarks and accompanying sample data-collection questions.
  • Section 3 gives some ideas on how the collected data can be used.
  • Section 4 lists the organizations that support use of this tool.
  • Section 5 provides the text of the Barcelona Bill of Rights, an advocacy tool formulated under the leadership of HIV-positive women at the XIV International AIDS Conference in 2002; this position statement has been endorsed by more than 260 individuals and organizations worldwide.

International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS. (2008). Positive women monitoring change: A monitoring tool on access to care, treatment and support and reproductive health rights and violence against women created by and for HIV positive women. London: ICW. Retrieved from:

This monitoring and evaluation tool was developed as a result of workshops held in February 2005. The three main key areas examined in this workshop were access to care, treatment and support (ACTS), sexual and reproductive rights (SSR) and violence against women (VAW), as these are the barriers HIV positive women are faced with in accessing their rights. This tool intends to explore the realities of women with HIV. The tool is intended for use by HIV positive women, and other actors working in the field of HIV and AIDS.

The first section of this tool scrutinizes the women with HIV's knowledge and awareness of rights as well as the issues that concern them in the aforementioned three areas (ACTS, SSR and VAW). The second section focuses on the experiences and attitudes of the service providers working in the areas of ACTS, SSR, VAW. The third section of the tool concentrates on the governmental level.

People’s Health Movement. (2006). The Assessment of the Right to Health and Health Care at the Country Level. Bangalore, Cairo: People's Health Movement. Retrieved from:

This assessment guide has been developed to focus on government responsibilities concerning the right to health and health care. By using this guide, the status of the right to health and health care can be evaluated in a certain country.

The assessment guide provides a five step process:

  • Step 1: What are your government's commitments?
  • Step 2: Are your government's policies appropriate to fulfill these obligations?
  • Step 3: Is the health system of your country adequately implementing interventions to realize the right to health and health care for all?
  • Step 4: Does the health status of different social groups and the population as a whole reflect a progression in their right to health and health care?
  • Step 5: What does the denial or fulfillment of the Right to Health in your country mean in practice?

After of having completed these steps and gathered information, the last part of the guide is to form recommendations to improve government health policy. This part provides detailed guidelines on how to do this by focusing on questions such as which violations to prioritize, who to involve in policy discussions and to whom lobbying efforts should be directed.

Business and Human Rights

Aim for Human Rights. (2008). Best Practice Guide to the Human Rights Compliance Assessment. Utrecht: Aim for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

The Best Practice Guide to the Human Rights Compliance Assessment offers multinational companies answers to questions on human rights and business. The guide is based on practical experiences of companies with Human Rights Compliance Assessment tools; instruments that help analyze and improve human rights compliance. It enables companies to address their responsibilities to their employees, customers, business partners and the wider communities within which they operate. The guide even enables businesses to put in place measures that ensure full compliance with international standards and ethical responsibilities. There is a popular misconception that the linking of human rights to business will involve a complex set of unrealistic demands. The Best Practice Guide proves the opposite, offering an achievable set of objectives that make good business sense.

Danish Institute for Human Rights. (2005). Human Rights Compliance Assessment. [Software Program, Version 1.0]. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Human Rights, Human Rights and Business Project. Available online at:

The HRCA is a diagnostic tool, designed to help companies detect potential human rights violations caused by the effect of their operations on employees, local residents and all other stakeholders. The tool runs on a database containing approximately 350 questions and more than 1,000 corresponding human rights indicators, developed from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and over 80 other major human rights treaties and ILO conventions. The interactive web-based computer programme allows each company to select questions in the database to suit their type of business and area of operations. When a questionnaire is complete, the computer programme generates a final report identifying areas of compliance and non-compliance in the company’s operations. Numeric scores are included in the report to help the company report, improve and track its performance from year to year. In addition, the HRCA proposes ways of avoiding the main cultural and legal pitfalls of human rights issues and offers suggestions for how to strengthen the rights at greatest risk. The standards and indicators in the database are updated on an annual basis, based on feedback from company and human rights group users, and to reflect changes/developments in international human rights law

The HRCA underwent a large-scale consultation process in 2003-2004 involving over 40 companies and 40 human rights groups from 14 European countries. The process was designed to ensure that the standards and indicators in the tool reflected wider agreement between the human rights and business worlds on company responsibility for human rights.

Version 2.0 will be released in August 2009.

Children’s Rights

Ennew, J. (1997). Monitoring Children’s Rights. Monitoring Children's Rights: Indicators for Children's Rights Project. Oslo: Childwatch International. Available online at:

Childwatch International designed a project that analyses further specific needs for indicators to monitor the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and suggests how the status of the various rights could be expressed through objective data. Through a series of country case studies, the project developed a strategy for identifying and developing appropriate indicators. Through the involvement of national research teams in the case studies as well as in its overall development, the project contributed to capacity building within child research and child welfare in the participating countries. It is characteristic of the project that it does not impose a set of universal guidelines but established a framework and a process through which country case study teams were able to develop protocols for data collection and indicator development that were relevant to regional, national and local situations.

Save the Children Sweden. (2008). Toolkit: Child Rights Situation Analysis. Stockholm:Save the Children Sweden. Retrieved from:

This toolkit provides a step approach on how to do a thorough situation analysis/assessment. The situation analysis/assessment should form a basis for planning of the programs/projects and strategies, as it creates a basis for assessing progress and evaluating the long-term impact of an intervention. It includes collecting relevant information to enable realistic assessment of what needs to be done in order to improve, in this case, the lives of children. It is a vital step towards identification of the key issues, establishing priorities and making the correct choices. This document provides detailed information on:

  • Tools on Sources of Information;
  • Tools for Analysis of Child Rights Violations and Gaps in Provision;
  • Tool for Government Institutions and International Framework Analysis;
  • Tool for Causality Analysis;
  • Tools for Power and Gender Analysis;
  • Tool for identification and Selections of Duty Bearers;
  • Tools for guiding writing of the CRSA.

Sex & Gender Rights (see also Health)

Basile, K., & Saltzman, L. (2002). Sexual Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definition and Recommended Data Elements. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved from:

Sexual Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Data Elements, Version 1.0 is a set of recommendations designed to promote consistency in the use of terminology and data collection related to sexual violence. This document was developed through an extensive consultation process and covers following categories: Uniform Definitions for Sexual Violence, Two Sets of Data Elements for Traditional and Survey Surveillance of Sexual Violence, which includes, and Recommended Data Elements for Sexual Violence.

Elson, D. (2006). Budgeting for Women's Rights: Monitoring Government Budgets for Compliance with CEDAW. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women. Retrieved from:

This report provides a framework for applying a rights-approach to budgets from a gender perspective that defines the requirements of good budget performance in the planning, formulation and execution stages. It also details the elements that require a critical assessment of budget policy making processes, the appropriateness of budget allocations, and the standard principles for non-discriminatory economic and budgets policies.

Meijer, M., & de Boer, M. (2008). Reporting Results of the Schokland Agreement on Violence Against Women. Utrecht: Aim for Human Rights, Project on Women’s Rights. Retrieved from:

This paper has been written at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs aiming to have a monitoring instrument for the additional efforts to combat violence against women. The paper starts with a short theoretical context from a human rights perspective, a background analysis on monitoring and reporting in general and the results of the Schokland agreement. Following this, the paper concludes with a development of a manual. Chapter 8 presents this manual, including reporting formats and examples of indicators. The last chapter provides suggestions for further reading.

Monitoring & Evaluation and Impact Assessment

Aim for Human. (2009). Guide to Corporate Human Rights Impact Assessment Tools. Aim for Human Rights: Utrecht, Netherlands. Retrieved from:

This “Guide to Corporate Human Rights Impact Assessment Tools” presents an overview of the existing Human Rights Impact Assessment (HRIA) tools for business. It supports business managers of (multinational) corporations and their stakeholders to find their way in the world of Human Rights Impact Assessments. It gives advice and practical assistance to select the tool(s) to assure the best HRIA process for the corporation. This document contains theory and history of the HRIAs, gives a summary of all the HRIA tools, maps these tools and provides an overview of when and how these tools can be used best in order to facilitate the selection of the proper tool for your business. The guide offers the practical assistance that corporations need to become social responsible and leads managers through the labyrinth of Human Rights Compliance Assessment.

André, E., & Sano, H. (2006). Human Rights Indicators and Program and Project Level: Guidelines for Defining Indicators, Monitoring and Evaluation. Copenhagen: The Danish Institute for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

The objective of this manual is to provide human rights workers with a set of tools by which to plan, monitor and evaluate human rights projects. The manual contains three types of information: 1) a presentation and discussion of basic concepts concerning indicators as well as monitoring and evaluation, 2) suggestions for monitoring procedures at the Danish Institute for Human Rights, and 3) a discussion of relevant human rights indicators applicable to the design and implementation of human rights programmes and projects.

Boesen, J., & Martin, T.(2007). Applying a Rights-Based Approach. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

This guide provides information on rights based approach (RBA) and how organizations can apply this approach in their day-to-day work in development. The guide is divided into two main parts, the first merely dealing with what RBA is, providing the history and understanding of the basic thinking behind RBA. The second part provides practical guidelines for how an organization can begin to use RBA in its work. The three basic steps of programming are the following:

  1. Analyzing the context
  2. Designing the programme
  3. Implementation, monitoring and evaluation

Brodeur, C. (2006). Rights and Democracy Getting it Right: A Step-by-Step Guide to Assess the Impact of Foreign Investment on Human Rights. (The Investment and Human Rights Initiative Project, Vol. 2).Montreal: Rights and Democracy. Retrieved from:

Companies use various tools to assess risks pertaining to their investments. However, communities affected by investment projects also need their own assessment tools. Rights & Democracy has therefore developed this guide to assist communities and civil society organizations to identify the impacts of investment on communities and to more effectively voice their concerns. Companies and other stakeholders may also use this assessment guide if they wish to understand the human rights impact of investment from a participatory and community-based perspective.

Channel Research. (2005). Generating Impact Indicators: European Initiative for Human Rights and Democracy. Lasne, Belgium: Channel Research. Retrieved from:

The present document is a tool (tailored to EIDHR priorities) to suggest some possible country level indicators, and advise on the optimal way of generating indicators for each project individually. It is intended for EC task managers and project operators.

In the first part of the document we outline some indicators grouped by Campaign as they are presented in the Programming Document 2005-2006. We have analysed the aims described under each campaign and called them “specific objectives”, for which we elaborate suggested indicators. In the second part we propose some guidelines on how partner organisations could draw up such indicators to improve their proposals and reporting.

Forss, K. (2002). Finding Out About Results From Projects and Programmes Concerning Democratic Governance and Human Rights. Stockholm: Sida. Retrieved from:

The purpose of this study is threefold; (1) to present a review of the “research frontier” in respect of methods to asses results of projects in democratic governance; (2) to assess what other development cooperation agencies do in this field, and to suggest lessons to be learned from their best practice; and (3) to discuss specific methodological issues on evaluation, performance management, rating systems, etc.

Global Reporting Initiative. (2008). Human Rights Performance Indicators. Amsterdam: Global Reporting Initiative. Retrieved from:

Human Rights Performance Indicators elicit disclosures on the impacts and activities an organization has on the civil and political human rights of its stakeholders. The Aspects within these Performance Indicators are based on internationally recognized standards, primarily the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the ILO Declaration on the Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work of 1998 (in particular the eight Core Conventions of the ILO).

Hijab, N. (2004). Working Guidelines: Human Rights-Based Reviews of UNDP Programmes. New York:UNDP, Bureau for Development Policy’s Institutional Development Group. Retrieved from:

The UN operates a Common Understanding of the human rights-based approach to development (HRBA). This United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) paper sets out working guidelines for a human rights-based review of UNDP country offices and projects based on the Common Understanding. The guidelines aim to support reviews at each phase of programming, strengthen existing activities and assist in the design of new programmes from a human rights perspective.

Hodgkin, R., & Newell, P. (2002). Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child. (3rd edition).New York: United Nations Children’s Fund. Retrieved from:

The Implementation Handbook, which was revised in 2002, assists in implementing the CRC by providing an analysis of each separate article of the Convention. For each article, the Handbook deals with the background, the interpretation by the Committee on the Rights of the Child and other international bodies and the guidelines for reporting and general comments; furthermore implementation checklists are provided for each article. Other international instruments related to the rights of the child are also considered, as well as the optional protocols to the CRC.

The Handbook can be used by governments, international agencies, NGOs and others as a practical tool for programming on children's rights as well as for monitoring and evaluating progress towards implementing the CRC.

Hunt, P., & MacNaughton, G. (2006). Assessments, Poverty and Human Rights: A Case Study Using the Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health. New York: UNESCO. Retrieved from:

The report presents a methodology for impact assessment in two parts:

  • First part presents general principles for performing a human rights-based impact assessment;
  • Second part proposes six steps for integrating the right to health, as a starting point for all human rights, into existing impact assessments.

In presenting the methodology the report:

  • Gives an introduction into the concept of impact assessment;
  • Emphasizes the role of human rights impact assessment in alleviating poverty;
  • Draws on criteria from three human rights impact assessment initiatives:
    • Norad Handbook in Human Rights Assessments;
    • the Rights & Democracy Initiative on Human Rights Impact Assessment; and
    • the HOM Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument.

International Business Leaders Forum, International Finance Corporation.(2007). Guide to Human Rights Impact Assessment and Management. London: ILBF; IFC. Retrieved from:

This Guide provides a toolkit that business managers can use to identify, assess and implement responses to human rights challenges in new or evolving business projects. It is a practical tool to bring human rights impact assessment into core business planning and management processes. This Guide can be used in three ways, namely as a risk management tool, an engagement tool and as a decision-making tool.

The Guide provides an eight-step process, namely:
Step 1: Determine whether a full Human Rights Impact Assessment and Management Process
Step 2: Identify and clarify the business project context
Step 3: Set the baseline: articulate the current local picture and conditions
Step 4: Consult with stakeholders to verify the human rights challenges
Step 5: Assess the human rights impacts and consequences
Step 6: Present the assessment findings and recommendations to management
Step 7: Implement a human rights management process
Step 8: Monitor, Evaluate and report on the management process

International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development. (2008). Getting it Right: A step by step guide to assess the impact of foreign investments on human rights. Montreal: International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development. Retrieved from:

This HRIA guide is a step-by-step process which aims to assess both the positive and negative impact of investment projects on human rights. This tool, intended for civil society organizations working directly with local communities, attempts to measure the gaps between the human rights in principle and the rights in practice. The objective of this tool is to prepare a report with recommendations for improvement to government and companies.

This guide is organized into six phases, namely:

  1. Preparation of the study
  2. Legal framework
  3. Adapting the guide
  4. Investigation process
  5. Analysis and report
  6. Engagement, monitoring and follow-up

Landman, T. (2006). Indicators for Human Rights Based Approaches to Development in UNDP Programming: A Users” Guide. New York: HURIST & Oslo Governance Centre, UNDP Governance Indicators” Project. Retrieved from:

This is a practically oriented Guide on indicators for human rights based approaches to development programmes for UNDP COs. The Guide contains separate sections on different aspects relating to the development and use of indicators across the key elements of human rights programming. The Guide summarizes the normative evolution in human rights and explains how human rights have been mainstreamed into the activities of all UN agencies. It also reviews the main existing indicators for human rights and discusses their limitations for human rights based programming. Two hypothetical programme examples on access to clean water and the prevention of torture are used to show how indicators can be used for human rights programming. Finally the Guide offers advice on how COs can use indicators for all phases of programme design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

New Zealand International Aid & Development Agency. (2008). NZAID Guideline on Mainstreaming Human Rights. Wellington, NZ: NZAID. Retrieved from:
Available online at:

This Guideline aims to help build understanding of key human rights concepts and suggests some ideas for using this understanding to assist with mainstreaming human rights in NZAID strategies and programmes. The ideas will apply to all strategies and programming; however specific human rights programmes will usually require the support of specialized contracted skills.

Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. (2001). Handbook in Human Rights Assessment. State Obligations, Awareness and Empowerment. Oslo: Norad. Retrieved from:

The handbook aims at assisting Norad staff in addressing relevant human rights concerns by means of a form which records potential, planned and/or likely positive or negative effects of the programme under review. A dam construction scheme may, for instance, have serious impact on the right to food (by access to land) and adequate housing for people living in the vicinity. In some cases a programme may have multiple effects, both positive and negative, direct and indirect. Thus the form should assist the case-worker in identifying and documenting various types of effects and make a general assessment of the overall human rights impact that a programme may have.

Poate, D., Riddell, R., Chapman, N., & Curran, T. (2000). The Evaluability of Democracy and Human Rights Projects. Stockholm: Sida. Retrieved from:

Support for democracy and human rights (D/HR) has played an increasingly important role in Sida's co-operation with developing countries ever since the early 1990s. Yet there is a considerable lack of reliable information on the impact of the Agency's D/HR initiatives. This evaluability assessment has the dual purposes of producing lessons on (a) useful methods for D/HR impact evaluation, and (b) good practices for the planning and implementation of D/HR projects. The study is complemented with a Management Response.

Public Health Advisory Committee. (2005). A Guide to Health Impact Assessment: A Policy Tool for New Zealand. Wellington: New Zealand Ministry of Health, Public Health Advisory Committee. Retrieved from:$File/guidetohia.pdf

This guide introduces health impact assessment as a practical way to ensure that health is considered as part of policy development in all sectors. This guide is intended for policy-makers in central and local government but it could also be useful for others for instance those who may be affected by policy.

This guide sets out four stages and two different tools. The first section of the guide introduces health impact assessment. The rest of the guide sets out guidance for how to do health impact assessment covering the following:

  • The four stages of health impact assessment (screening, scoping, appraisal and reporting, evaluation)
  • Two tools to choose from for the appraisal and reporting stage
  • Impact assessment
  • Making recommendations to amend the policy proposal on basis of the health impact assessment

The benchmarks in this monitoring tool were piloted by 8 NGOs in 11 countries under the coordination of Ipas. The tool is particularly useful as it adds a human rights perspective to the Millennium Development Goals. It also gives suggestions on how to use the benchmarks.

Puddephatt, A., & McCall, E.(2006) A Guide to Measuring the Impact of Right to Information Programs. New York: UNDP. Retrieved from:

The right to information is fundamental in bolstering democratic principles of openness, transparency and accountability in societies and in eradicating poverty and is therefore a programming priority for UNDP. This Guide complements the Practical Guidance Note on Right to Information, which provided guidance on approaches for designing and implementing programmes in this area. It builds on this knowledge, and focuses on the monitoring and evaluation of those programmes, paying particular attention to the use of appropriate indicators, including gender and pro-poor indicators. It outlines the basic principles of programme evaluation, but concentrates on assessing outcomes. It outlines four broad areas of right to information that must be considered in any context for a thorough evaluation. These are: (1) the legal regime for the right to information; (2) the implementation of right to information legislation by government; (3) the use of right to information by the general public and civil society; and (4) the use of right to information by marginalised group. It then suggests questions for each area, and derives from these typical baseline assessment features, outputs and outcomes.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2008). Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons. New York:UNODC, Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings. Retrieved from:

This toolkit contains 123 tools, providing guidance, recommended resources and promising practices intended for policy makers, law enforcers, judges, prosecutors, victim service providers and members of civil society working on preventing trafficking in persons. Chapters 10 addresses monitoring and evaluation.

United States Assistance and International Development. (2004). Monitoring and Evaluation Plan: Human Rights and Reconciliation Project - 2001-2004. Washington DC: USAID. Retrieved from:

Logframe for Human Rights and Reconciliation Project in Guatemala.

Reports and Papers Relating to Human Rights Impact

Abdulla, R., Jyothi, S., & Junisya, S. (2005). Monitoring Ten Years of ICPD Implementation: The Way Forward to 2015, Asian Country Reports. Kuala Lumpur: ARROW. Retrieved from:

This report presents findings from the only monitoring study in Asia, and one of the few globally, to provide much needed evidence on the International Conference on Population and Development progress in time for the 10 year review.

Aim for Human Rights. (2007). Human Rights Impact Assessment in Practice. Utrecht: Aim for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

Aim for human rights organized its second Human Rights Impact Assessment Conference on 29 and 30 November 2007, in Zandvoort, the Netherlands and this report provides an overview of the presentations and discussions held during the two days at the conference. Concepts of human rights impact assessment and assessment regarding health right and business in developing countries were the themes addressed in the conference.

Andreassen, B.A., & Sano, H.O. (2004). What's the Goal? What's the Purpose? Observations on Human Rights Impact Assessment. Norwegian Centre for Human Rights: Oslo [Norway]. Retrieved from:

This paper addresses the use of indicators in assessing the impact of human rights projects in fulfilling their objectives. The terms “human rights projects” refer to development initiatives defined and designed to enhance human rights in societal contexts, and conducted by public or non-governmental organisations and actors. The paper highlights the need for formulating indicators that are accurate and appropriately related to the goals and objectives of human rights projects. It assumes that this has been neglected in international human rights project work, as well as in human rights research.

ARROW. (2000). In Dialogue for Women's Health Rights: Report of the Southeast Asian Regional GO-NGO Policy Dialogue on Monitoring and Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action, 1-4 June 1998. Kuala Lumpur: ARROW.

The report includes dialogue discussions on monitoring and implementation efforts in three broad themes:

  • Sexual and reproductive health and rights
  • Violence against women
  • Gender-sensitive health programmes

Findings suggest the need for a broader approach to understanding women’s health needs, an approach requiring creativity, commitment, and gender-sensitivity.

Barnett, K., & Jeferys, A. (2009). Full of Promise: How the UN’s Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism Can Better Protect Children. (Humanitarian Practice Network Paper No. 62.) London: Oversees Development Institute. Retrieved from:

Established in 2005 by the UN Security Council, the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism is a groundbreaking step in the protection of children. Four years on, Save the Children UK has conducted a global study to see what impact this mechanism has had on children’s lives. This new report outlines our key findings and puts forward recommendations for how its impact could be enhanced, particularly in three areas:

  • developments in international policy debates and processes
  • changes in the behavior of duty-bearers and parties to conflict, and
  • changes in children’s lives

The report concludes with key recommendations for policy-makers and practitioners engaged in assisting children affected by armed conflict.

Brysk, A. (1994). The Politics of Human Rights in Argentina: Protest, Change, and Democratization. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

This book situates the human rights movement in Argentina in the context of a larger politics of human rights: a set of relationships and struggles among the movement(s), state, society, and international system. It comprehensively examines the emergence, successes, and failures of the Argentine human rights movement.

Cardenas, S. (2007). Conflict and Compliance: State Responses to International Human Rights Pressure. Pittsburgh, PA: Pennsylvania Press.

International human rights pressure has been applied to numerous states with varying results. In Conflict and Compliance, Sonia Cardenas examines responses to such pressure and challenges conventional views of the reasons states do —or do not —comply with international law. Data from disparate bodies of research suggest that more pressure to comply with human rights standards is not necessarily more effective and that international policies are more efficient when they target the root causes of state oppression.

Cardenas surveys a broad array of evidence to support these conclusions, including Latin American cases that incorporate recent important declassified materials, a statistical analysis of all the countries in the world, and a set of secondary cases from Eastern Europe, South Africa, China, and Cuba. The views of human rights skeptics and optimists are surveyed to illustrate how state rhetoric and behavior can be interpreted differently depending on one's perspective.

Carr Center for Human Rights. (2005). Measurement & Human Rights: Tracking Progress, Assessing Impact. Cambridge: Harvard University. Retrieved from:

The aim of these papers was to take stock of what has been done so far to make human rights “measurable.” Together, they offer an overview of existing measurement initiatives in the hopes of clarifying who has developed them, what they are being used for, and what aspects of human rights, as a consequence, they do and do not capture. They also present some of the basic methodological, practical, and conceptual challenges associated with measuring progress in human rights, and they offer accounts of why the measurement of progress is so vitally important.

Carr Center for the Study of Human Rights. (2006.). Workshop on Measurement and Human Rights. Cambridge: Harvard University. Retrieved from:

Drawing on a workshop that was held at Harvard in July of 2006, this booklet is an introductory guide for practitioners who are interested in tackling the challenge of measurement in the field of human rights. It provides an outline of the workshop, and provides a collection of frameworks and case-examples aimed at breaking down the barriers that keep human rights organizations from developing impact metrics that the rest of the world can understand.

This guide is also meant to caution those who are looking to metrics and quantitative indicators as the answer to the frustrating persistence of human rights problems. Understanding impact means not only finding numbers to quantify outcomes, but also understanding whether an approach is addressing the systemic causes of the abuse. A band-aid remedy may produce impressive numbers but never provide the cure; while the cure might not produce visible results immediately.

The Centre for Islamic Studies. (2005). Promoting Women’s Rights through Sharia in Northern Nigeria. London: British Council. Retrieved from:

This report is part of a project that seeks to promote respect for the rights of Muslim women in Northern Nigeria through Sharia. Research and data collection for this report were carried out with the support of the Security, Justice and Growth Programme, one of whose objectives is to make justice accessible to the poor and vulnerable members of the society.

Muslim women in Northern Nigeria, like others across the world, have been subjected to practices that violate their rights. The expansion of Sharia in most states in Northern Nigeria provides the opportunity to question and address these practices by subjecting them to the scrutiny of Sharia. It also opens an avenue for concerned Muslims to embark on projects that seek to promote positive practices and challenge harmful and negative ones, relying on an authentic understanding of Sharia. Addressing these negative practices is important because they constitute barriers to women’s rights and hinder Muslim women’s ability to access justice in Nigeria. In addition, they have a generally negative impact on the religion.

The present report documents both exemplary and harmful practices affecting Muslim women in Northern Nigeria, and evaluates them according to Sharia. The team of research consultants has relevant expertise in Islamic law, human rights and sociology.

Cingranelli, D., & Richards, D. (2005). Measuring economic and social human rights: government effort & achievement in S. Hertel & L. Minker (Eds.). Economic Rights: Conceptual, Measurement, and Policy Issues. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 214-233.

In this paper it is argued that it is necessary to develop a measure for the economic and social human rights practices of governments, instead of measuring human rights conditions or human rights policies. The authors thus outline a method to measure the level of government effort to respect economic & social rights, as well as a method to use this measure to come to an improved measure of government respect for economic & social rights that takes effort into account.

It is a rather technical paper which provides ready-to-use formulas in which already existing indicators such as ICESCR ratification and GPD per capita are used.

Clark, A.M. (2001). Diplomacy of Conscience: Amnesty International and Changing Human Rights Norms. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Diplomacy of Conscience traces Amnesty International's efforts to strengthen both popular human rights awareness and international law against torture, disappearances, and political killings. Drawing on primary interviews and archival research, Ann Marie Clark posits that Amnesty International's strenuously cultivated objectivity gave the group political independence and allowed it to be critical of all governments violating human rights. Its capacity to investigate abuses and interpret them according to international standards helped it foster consistency and coherence in new human rights law.

Generalizing from this study, Clark builds a theory of the autonomous role of nongovernmental actors in the emergence of international norms pitting moral imperatives against state sovereignty. Her work is of substantial historical and theoretical relevance to those interested in how norms take shape in international society, as well as anyone studying the increasing visibility of nongovernmental organizations on the international scene.

Clifford, B. (2005). The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media and International Activism. New York: Cambridge University Press.

How do a few Third World conflicts become international causes célèbres, while most remain isolated and unknown? Why, for instance, has there been so much recent attention to the Darfur crisis but so little to ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo, despite vastly more casualties in the latter than in the former? This book rejects the view that those who gain such support are simply the lucky winners in a “global humanitarian lottery.” It also rejects the idea that there is a “meritocracy of suffering” in which the worst-off groups gain the most support. Instead, the author argues that conflicts, and the insurgent groups involved in them, face a Darwinian struggle for scarce media attention, NGO activism, and international concern. In this competition, the lion's share of resources go to the savviest, not the neediest. The book presents a theory of how insurgent groups raise international awareness and match themselves to the interests and concerns of powerful international audiences. Key factors include interactions with the international media, framing, and leadership skills. The book covers numerous examples spanning conflicts in Tibet, Sudan, and elsewhere. In addition, the book tests and applies the theory through systematic comparative analysis of matched Mexican and Nigerian insurgencies - both successes and failures in the quest for international support.

Cmiel, K. (2004). The Recent History of Human Rights. The American Historical Review, 109(1), 117-135. Retrieved from:

This article discusses the evolution of human rights and focuses on historians who address human rights in their work.

Danish International Development Agency. (2000). Human Rights and Democratisation.(Vols.1-9). Copenhagen: Danida.

Can be found by following the following website and searching “human rights.”

1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Volume 1 Synthesis Report.
1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Vol. 2. Just., Constitution., Leg.
1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Vol. 3. Elections.
1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Vol. 4. Media.
1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Vol. 5 Participation and Empowerment
1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Volume 6 Ghana
1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Vol. 7. Guatemala.
1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Vol. 8. Mozambique.
1999.11 Evaluation. Human Rights and Democratisation. Vol. 9. Nepal.

Danish Institute for Human Rights. (2005). Country Risk Assessment Reports. [Webpage]. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Human Rights, Human Rights and Business Project. Available online at:

The Country Risk Assessment (CRA) reports developed by the Human Rights and Business Project are designed to provide companies with systematic and in-depth analysis of sensitive human rights issues in the country of operation, along with practical guidance on how to avoid engaging in human rights violations.

The objective of the CRA report is to determine areas where companies are at risk of human rights violations - both direct and indirect - due to ineffective laws or poor practices in the country of operation. The CRA is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and examines each human right from a corporate perspective. It uses a red-light/green light system to assign risk ratings to each human right according to strengths and weaknesses identified in the formal laws, societal practices and general business environment in the country of operation. The risk ratings are followed by a list of recommended action items to help the company address specific vulnerabilities and improve its performance in relation to the identified risks. Issues (e.g. child labour, forced labour, wages, working hours, etc) identified in the analysis as most high-risk are compiled into a list of suggested focal areas for the company to use in compliance processes with local partners and suppliers. The CRAs can be used in conjunction with the Human Rights Compliance Assessment Tool (HRCA) to help the company localize and streamline its internal compliance processes.

The CRAs are part of the Corporate Membership package offered by the Human Rights and Business Project. As part of this package the CRAs can be accessed by companies. They have to pay a fee for the corporate membership.

Del Sarto, R., Schumacher, T., Lannon, E., & Driss, A. (2006) Benchmarking Human Rights and Democratic Development within the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. Lisbon: EuroMeSCo. Retrieved from:

This report aims to critically assess the EU’s objective of introducing a benchmarking process in the realm of human rights and democratic development within its Mediterranean policy. It first discusses some conceptual and analytical difficulties related to “benchmarking” human rights and democratic governance and goes on to discuss how this takes place within the Euro-Mediterranean context. The report analyses the “first round” of ENP Action Plans concluded with the Mediterranean partner states and their value for benchmarking. Considering the conceptual and practical flaws of these Action Plans, the report proposes a phased process for the conceptualization of democratization. For each of these phases, the report identifies a number of criteria that characterize the phase. Subsequently, it is proposed how these criteria could be translated into indicators.

Department for International Development. (2008). UK Assessment and Proposed Support in the Rule of Law Sector in Kosovo. London: DFID. Retrieved from:

This report is a summary of an assessment the UK government undertook in July 2008 to identify ways to use UK funding to assist the Government of Kosovo in developing its Rule of Law sector.

Development Assistance Committee. (2007). DAC Action-Oriented Policy Paper on Human Rights and Development. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

On 15 February 2007, the DAC for the first time approved a policy paper devoted exclusively to the promotion and integration of human rights in development. The paper that was developed by the Human Rights Task Team of the GOVNET reflects changes in the international context and in evolving donor policies and practice over the past decade and highlights new challenges and opportunities for promoting human rights at a time of ambitious reforms in the international aid system.

Development Assistance Committee. (2006). The Development Dimension: Integrating Human Rights into Development: Donor Approaches, Experiences and Challenges. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:,3343,en_2649_34565_37045656_1_1_1_1,00.html

In recent years, human rights and development have been converging. Growing recognition that there are crucial links between rights violations, poverty, exclusion, environmental degradation, vulnerability and conflict has led many OECD member countries and multilateral donors to look at human rights more thoroughly as a means for improving the quality of development co-operation. Some have adopted human rights-based approaches to development, while others have preferred to integrate human rights explicitly or implicitly into various dimensions of their development work, especially into their governance agendas.

This book seeks to enhance understanding and consensus on why and how we need to work more strategically and coherently on the integration of human rights and development. It reviews the approaches of different donor agencies and their rationales for working on human rights, and identifies the current practice in this field. It illustrates how aid agencies are working on human rights issues at the programming level, and it draws together lessons that form the core of the current evidence around the added value of human rights for development. Lastly, it addresses both new opportunities and conceptual and practical challenges to human rights within the evolving development partnerships between donors and partner countries, as well as in relation to the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness as a new reference point of the international aid system.

By giving numerous examples of practical approaches, this publication shows that there are various ways for donor agencies to take human rights more systematically into account – in accordance with their respective mandates, modes of engagement and comparative advantage.

Development Assistance Committee. (2007). Human Rights Aid and Effectiveness. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

The relationship between human rights and the Paris Declaration is receiving increasing attention in development research, policy and practice. This paper provides an overview of recent initiatives that have been undertaken through the DAC with the support from the GOVNET and its Human Rights Task Team.

Development Assistance Committee. (2007). Workshop on Development Effectiveness in Practice – Applying the Paris Declaration to Advancing Gender Equality, Environmental Sustainability and Human Rights. Outcome Document. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

On 26-27 April 2007, 120 participants representing bilateral and multilateral donors, partner countries and civil society organisations from the North and South gathered in Dublin to discuss the relationship between human rights, gender equality and environmental sustainability as overarching, universal objectives of development and the ambitious agenda of reforms aimed at improving the effectiveness of the international aid system that is embodied in the Paris Declaration. The DAC GOVNET’s Human Rights Task Team, GENDERNET, ENVIRONET and the Working Party on Aid Effectiveness had jointly taken the initiative in response to increasing attention that this relationship is attracting in development research, policy and practice.,3343,en_2649_34565_38282425_1_1_1_1,00.html

Duggan, C. (2008). Challenges and Prospects for Evaluating Transitional Justice. Draft prepared for the International Journal of Transitional JusticeBoard Conference, Capetown, South Africa. Retrieved from:

This paper explores three questions and raises a number of observations or issues that merit further discussion:

  1. What is the relationship (if any) between applied research and program evaluation?
  2. What are the major evaluation dilemmas currently facing international research donors or grant makers and how are these intermeshing with and affecting researchers and in general, and researchers and practitioners of transitional justice in particular?
  3. What are some promising methodological avenues emerging from program evaluation theory and practice and how might they be used to support evidence based approaches for transitional justice research?

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. (2002). Report of the Task-Force on Tools and Indicators for Gender Impact Analysis, Monitoring, and Evaluation. New York: UN Interagency Network on Women and Gender Equality. Retrieved from:

As the main report of the Task-Force manager for the year 2001, the present document first inform of the interagency activities carried out at international level as well as the main conclusions that can be drawn from the results. This first section also presents a specific report of activities executed in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean and Europe. It concludes with general considerations on moving forward strategies and the identification of future activities to strengthen de use of gender indicators.

The second part of the report presents the actual inventory of available indicators and tools in the United Nations systems. Tools include technical guides to produce gender indicators, information on the primary sources of information used in the building of indicators, and principal means of dissemination - like statistical databases and publications. The information on gender indicators is organized following the different areas of interest and main problems met in the access to the information as well as in its interpretation are briefly analyzed.

Finally, a series of annexes provide the last version of the project proposal prepared by the Task- Force on gender indicators for the follow-up of the Beijing Platform for Action; the questionnaire on gender indicators and tools sent by ECLAC to the members of IANWGE in the preparation of the inventory; the list of United Nations home pages dedicated to gender indicators; an example of indicators inconsistencies through different databases; a list of mandates received to this date at global and regional level on the issue of gender indicators; and a detailed list of gender indicators available in the United Nations system in the different areas of interest of the Task-Force.

Engle, S.M. (2006). Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Despite the best efforts of the United Nations and advances in human rights law, violence against women across the globe is still perpetuated in the gap between legal principle and local practices. Human Rights and Gender Violence investigates the tensions between global law and local justice from an insider’s perspective. As an observer of UN diplomatic negotiations as well as the workings of grassroots feminist organizations in several countries, Sally Engle Merry shows how human rights law holds authorities accountable for the protection of citizens even while it reinforces and expands state power. Using an approach that is both legal and anthropological, Merry contends that international human rights law must be framed in local terms to be accepted and thus effective.

EuropeAid. European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights Working Documents: Evaluations. [Webpage]. Luxembourg: Office for the Publications of the European Communities. Available online at:

Felner, E. (2008). A New Frontier in Economic and Social Rights Advocacy? Turning Quantitative Data into a Tool for Human Rights Accountability. Sur: International Journal on Human Rights, 5(9), 109-146.Retrieved from:,artigo_felner.htm

In spite of positive developments in the last 60 years, the worldwide promotion and protection of economic and social rights remains a daunting challenge. While millions of people are deprived of clean water, primary health care and basic education, most states do not recognize economic and social rights as more than abstract declarations of principles. Also, governments and international organizations usually tackle these questions exclusively as development challenges, ignoring their relation to human rights obligations. In this article, there is an initial attempt to set out a methodological framework to illustrate how some simple quantitative methods can be used in concrete situations to assess whether a state is violating its human rights obligations. Quantitative tools can help us, as human rights advocates, not only to persuasively show the scope and magnitude of various forms of rights denial, but also in revealing and challenging policy failures that contribute to the perpetuation of those deprivations and inequalities.

Filmer-Wilson, E. (2005). Summary Report of Material Collated Regarding Practical Guidance to Implementing Rights Based Approaches: Human Rights Analyses for Poverty Reduction and Human Rights Benchmarks from Development Actors and Other Relevant Communities. London: DFID. Retrieved from:

To what extent are human rights being incorporated into development programmes? How can a human rights-based approach best be developed? This report, by the UK Government Department for International Development (DFID), brings together material collated from development organizations in four key areas: practical guidance on rights-based approaches, including case studies and checklists; analytical tools which feature human rights for understanding the causes and characteristics of poverty; human rights impact assessment; and human rights indicators to measure development progress.

Foresti, M., Booth, D., & O’Neil, T. (2006). Aid effectiveness and human rights: strengthening the implementation of the Paris Declaration. London: Oversees Development Institute. Retrieved from:

This study of the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is based on a project commissioned by the GOVNET’s Task Team on Human Rights. A Framework Paper and five Illustration Papers analyse the specific contributions that human rights thinking and practice can make towards a better understanding of the Paris Declaration’s key principles (ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results, mutual accountability) and their implementation.

Foss, E. (2008). The Future of Human Rights Measurement: Towards an International Survey of Rights. (Issue Paper, Vol. 1, Issue 3.) Cambridge: Carr Center for the Study of Human Rights. Retrieved from:
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After comparing four ways of measuring human rights (events-based, standards-based, proxy-based, survey-based), the paper discusses the benefits of the survey-based approaches and shows necessity of new, international survey-based data.

Fukuda-Parr, S., Lawson-Remer, T., & Randolph, S. (2008). Measuring the Progressive Realization of Human Rights Obligations: An Index of Economic and Social Rights Fulfillment. (Economic Rights Working Papers, No. 8). Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Human Rights Institute. Retrieved from:

This paper proposes a methodology for an index of economic and social rights fulfillment that: uses available survey-based objective, rather than subjective data; focuses on state obligations rather than solely on individual enjoyment of rights; and captures progressive realization of human rights subject to maximum available resources. Two calculation methods are proposed: the ratio approach and the achievement possibilities frontier approach. The paper identifies key conceptual and data constraints. Recognizing the complex methodological challenges, the aim of this paper is not to resolve all the difficulties, but rather to contribute to the process of building rigorous approaches to human rights measurement. The proposed index thus has recognized limitations, yet is an important first step based on available data. The goal is to contribute to the longer term development of a methodology for measuring economic and social rights fulfillment. The paper concludes that the proposed index provides important new information compared with other measures of economic and social rights fulfillment, but still does not capture some desired features such as the right to non-discrimination and equality, and the right to social security. The paper also outlines an agenda for longer term research and data collection that would make more complete measurement possible.

Green, M. (2001). What We Talk About When We Talk About Indicators: Current Approaches to Human Rights Measurement. Human Rights Quarterly, 23(4),1062–1097. Retrieved from:

The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the current state of the field with regard to human rights indicators, including indicators for civil, cultural, economic, political, and social rights. In the course of an extensive examination of the field we identified five central questions in the discussion of human rights indicators:

  • Is the word “indicator” used within the human rights community to refer to information beyond statistical data?
  • Is there a difference in kind between indicators designed to measure economic, social and cultural rights and indicators designed to measure civil and political rights?
  • Is there a practical distinction to be made between indicators designed to measure states' compliance with their obligations under the various human rights treaties and indicators designed to measure individuals' and groups' enjoyment of their human rights under the various human rights treaties? If so, to what extent have effective indicators been developed to measure compliance and enjoyment respectively?
  • Is there a distinction to be made between indicators concerning economic, social and cultural rights and indicators that measure levels of development or conditions of poverty?
  • What are the kinds of indicators currently being used by UN bodies, NGOs, and scholars with regard to the human rights guaranteed under the various international treaties?

Hafner-Burton, E. (2009). Forced to be Good: Why Trade Agreements Boost Human Rights. Ithica: Cornell University Press.

How and why do global norms for social justice become international regulations linked to seemingly unrelated issues, such as trade? Hafner-Burton finds that the process has been unconventional. Efforts by human rights advocates and labor unions to spread human rights ideals, for example, do not explain why American and European governments employ preferential trade agreements to protect human rights. Instead, most of the regulations protecting human rights are codified in global moral principles and laws only because they serve policymakers' interests in accumulating power or resources or solving other problems. Otherwise, demands by moral advocates are tossed aside.

And, as Hafner-Burton shows, even the inclusion of human rights protections in trade agreements is no guarantee of real change, because many of the governments that sign on to fair trade regulations oppose such protections and do not intend to force their implementation. Ultimately, Hafner-Burton finds that, despite the difficulty of enforcing good regulations and the less-than-noble motives for including them, trade agreements that include human rights provisions have made a positive difference in the lives of some of the people they are intended-on paper, at least-to protect.

Hafner-Burton, E. (2008). Sticks and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights Enforcement Problem.International Organization, 62, 689–716. Retrieved from:

“Naming and shaming” is a popular strategy to enforce international human rights norms and laws. Nongovernmental organizations, news media, and international organizations publicize countries” violations and urge reform. Evidence that these spotlights are followed by improvements is anecdotal. This article analyzes the relationship between global naming and shaming efforts and governments” human rights practices for 145 countries from 1975 to 2000. The statistics show that governments put in the spotlight for abuses continue or even ramp up some violations afterward, while reducing others. One reason is that governments” capacities for human rights improvements vary across types of violations. Another is that governments are strategically using some violations to offset other improvements they make in response to international pressure to stop violations.

Hafner-Burton, E., & Ron, J. (2007)Human Rights Institutions: Rhetoric and Efficacy. Journal of Peace Research, 44(4), 379-384. Retrieved from:

International human rights language has swept across the landscape of contemporary world politics in a trend that began in the 1970s, picked up speed after the Cold War's end, and quickened yet again in the latter half of the 1990s. Yet, while this human rights `talk' has fundamentally reshaped the way in which global policy elites, transnational activists, and some national leaders talk about politics and justice, actual impacts are more difficult to discern, requiring more nuance and disaggregation. Importantly, there may be substantial cross-regional variations, due to varying colonial and post-colonial histories, and different trajectories in state —society relations. In some instances, there are also important differences in tone between qualitative and quantitative researchers. While many case-study scholars tend to be rather optimistic about the potential for human rights change, statistically inclined researchers often lean towards greater caution and, in some cases, downright skepticism about the trans-formative potential of international human rights law and advocacy. Given that international human rights treaties, human rights reporting, democracy, and elections do not always influence state practice in expected ways, the authors call for more regionally disaggregated studies, coupled with greater efforts to combine qualitative and quantitative research techniques.

Hafner-Burton, E., & Ron, J. (2009).Seeing Double: Human Rights Impact through Qualitative and Quantitative Eyes. World Politics, 6(2), 360. Retrieved from:

Over the past two decades, human rights language has spread like wildfire across international policy arenas. The activists who sparked this fire are engaged in two different campaigns. The first is comparatively modest, involving the persuasion of tens of thousands of global elites such as journalists, UN officials, donors, and national political leaders. The second is broader and more complex: to make real impact on the behavior of tens of millions of state agents worldwide. While most international relations scholars agree that the first campaign has made real gains, opinions are split on the success - past, present and future - of the second. In part, these divisions fall along methodological lines. With some exceptions, qualitative scholars working in the empirical international relations tradition express more optimism than their quantitative counterparts, whose contributions to the sub-field are relatively new. This article reviews several new books on human rights and shows how their insights engage with these ongoing methodological debates. We argue that both qualitative and quantitative approaches offer important strengths, and that neither has a monopoly on truth. Still, the human rights discourse may be thriving, at least in part, for reasons unrelated to impact. We conclude with suggestions for more systematic and multi-method research, along with a plea for scholarly attention to the potential downsides of international human rights promotion.

Hafner-Burton, E., & Tsutsui, K. (2005). Human Rights in a Globalizing World: The Paradox of Empty Promises. American Journal of Sociology, 110(5), 1373-1411. Retrieved from:

The authors examine the impact of the international human rights regime on governments” human rights practices. They propose explanation that highlights a “paradox of empty promises.” Their core arguments are that the global institutionalization of human rights has created an international context in which (1) governments often ratify human rights treaties as a matter of window dressing, radically decoupling policy from practice and at times exacerbating negative human rights practices, but (2) the emergent global legitimacy of human rights exerts independent global civil society effects that improve states” actual human rights practices. The authors” statistical analyses on a comprehensive sample of government repression from 1976 to 1999 find support for their argument.

Hafner-Burton, E., & Tsutsui, K. (2007). Justice Lost! The Failure of International Human Rights Law To Matter Where Needed Most. Journal of Peace Research, 44(4),407-425.

International human rights treaties have been ratified by many nation-states, including those ruled by repressive governments, raising hopes for better practices in many corners of the world. Evidence increasingly suggests, however, that human rights laws are most effective in stable or consolidating democracies or in states with strong civil society activism. If so, treaties may be failing to make a difference in those states most in need of reform — the world's worst abusers — even though they have been the targets of the human rights regime from the very beginning. The authors address this question of compliance by focusing on the behavior of repressive states in particular. Through a series of cross-national analyses on the impact of two key human rights treaties, the article demonstrates that (1) governments, including repressive ones, frequently make legal commitments to human rights treaties, subscribing to recognized norms of protection and creating opportunities for socialization and capacity-building necessary for lasting reforms; (2) these commitments mostly have no effects on the world's most terrible repressors even long into the future; (3) recent findings that treaty effectiveness is conditional on democracy and civil society do not explain the behavior of the world's most abusive governments; and (4) realistic institutional reforms will probably not help to solve this problem.

Hathaway, O. (2002). Do Human Rights Treaties Make a Difference? The Yale Law Journal, 111, 1935-2042. Retrieved from:

Do countries comply with the requirements of human rights treaties that they join? Are these treaties effective in changing states' behavior for the better? This Article addresses these questions through a large-scale quantitative analysis of the relationship between human rights treaties and countries' human rights practices. The analysis relies on a database encompassing 166 nations over a nearly forty-year period in five areas of human rights law. The analysis finds that although the practices of countries that have ratified human rights treaties are generally better than those of countries that have not, noncompliance with treaty obligations appears common. More paradoxically, controlling for other factors that affect practices, it appears that treaty ratification is not infrequently associated with worse practices than otherwise expected. These findings can be explained in part, the Article contends, by the dual nature of treaties as both instrumental and expressive instruments. Treaties not only create binding law, but also declare or express the position of countries that ratify them. Because human rights treaties tend to be weakly monitored and enforced, countries that ratify may enjoy the benefits of this expression-including, perhaps, reduced pressure for improvements in practices-without bearing significant costs. This does not mean that human rights treaties do not have any positive influence, but simply that these positive effects may sometimes be offset or even outweighed by treaties' less beneficial effects. The Article concludes by considering better ways to help ensure that human rights treaties improve the lives of those they are meant to help.

Henschel, B. (2003). The Assessment of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Review of Methodologies. Washington DC: World Bank. Retrieved from:

Commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC) is a global phenomenon of growing proportion. The invisibility and defenselessness of the victims, as well as the lack of public debate and responses from the various states to commercial and non-commercial sexual exploitation of children, are some of the most serious features of this present form of exploitation. To combat and prevent CSEC, the nature, extension and causes of this phenomenon must be identified. Besides, the mixture of social, political and economic factors that make children more vulnerable to CSE must be understood as well as the motivation of adults to have sexual relations with children. The illegal, hidden or invisible property of CSEC makes it extremely difficult to gather reliable data on this phenomenon. Hence, following the literature a total absence of econometric work is confirmed. To overcome the lack of qualitative and quantitative information on the commercial sexual exploitation of children new research approach and non-traditional research methods must be elaborated and applied. The aim of this paper is to review all existing attempts to assess and quantify commercial sexual exploitation of children.

Hertel, S. (2007). Unexpected Power: Conflict and Change among Transnational Activists. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

This book explores the dramatic negotiations within cross-border human rights campaigns. Activists on the receiving end of such campaigns do much more than seek the help of powerful allies beyond their borders. They often also challenge outsiders' understandings of basic human rights-in some cases, directly (by “blocking” campaigns intended to help them) and in other cases, indirectly (by employing “backdoor moves” aimed at more subtly introducing new human rights norms). Hertel looks closely at struggles for human rights in two contexts: Bangladesh, where activists challenged the understanding of human rights central to an international campaign to prevent child labor in that country, and Mexico, where activists sought to broaden the scope of efforts to prevent discrimination against pregnant workers in their country. Hertel connects these unexpected challenges to a new wave of international advocacy, and thereby illuminates democratic struggles in the new global economy.

Hertel, S., & Minkler, L. (2007). Economic and Social Rights: the Terrain. In Hertel and Minkler (Eds.), Economic Rights: Conceptual, Measurement and Policy Issues. New York: Cambridge University Press.

This edited volume offers new scholarship on economic rights by leading scholars in the fields of economics, law, and political science. It analyzes the central features of economic rights: their conceptual, measurement, and policy dimensions. In its introduction, the book provides a new conceptualization of economic rights based on a three-pronged definition: the right to a decent standard of living, the right to work, and the right to basic income support for people who cannot work. Subsequent chapters correct existing conceptual mistakes in the literature, provide new measurement techniques with country rankings, and analyze policy implementation at the international, regional, national, and local levels. While it forms a cohesive whole, the book is nevertheless rich in contending perspectives.

Holland, S. (2008). Ranking Rights: Problems and Prospects for a Quantitative Global Human Rights Index. (Issue Paper, Vol. 1, Issue 4.) Cambridge: Carr Center for the Study of Human Rights. Retrieved from:

After examining benefits and challenges of constructing a quantitative global human rights index (GHRI), the paper concludes it would be better to spend the efforts of the global human rights community elsewhere.

Hopgood, S. (2006). Keepers of the Flame: Understanding Amnesty International. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Keepers of the Flame charts the history of Amnesty International and the development of its nerve center, the International Secretariat, over forty-five years. The book provides an account of day-to-day operations within the organization, larger decisions about the nature of its mission, and struggles over the implementation of that mission.

An enduring feature of Amnesty’s inner life, Hopgood finds, has been a recurrent struggle between the “keepers of the flame” who seek to preserve Amnesty’s accumulated store of moral authority and reformers who hope to change, modernize, and use that moral authority in ways that its protectors fear may erode the organization’s uniqueness. He also explores how this concept of moral authority affects the working lives of the servants of such an ideal and the ways in which it can undermine an institution’s political authority over time. Hopgood argues that human-rights activism is a social practice best understood as a secular religion where internal conflict between sacred and profane —the mission and the practicalities of everyday operations —are both unavoidable and necessary.

Innovation Network, Inc. (2008) Speaking for Themselves: Advocates” Perspectives on Evaluation. Washington DC: Innovation Network, Inc. Retrieved from:

A great deal of progress has been made in advocacy evaluation, as funders and evaluators have identified and begun to craft solutions to these challenges. Nevertheless, there exists a gap in the work to date: What do the advocates themselves have to say? What do advocates think about evaluating their own work? What skills and resources do they need to do it? What do they think of the evaluation methods and tools now available?

Our hope is that this report will begin to fill the gap and add advocates” voices to the advocacy evaluation conversation. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of advocates” views on evaluation, the advocacy strategies and capacities they find effective, and current evaluation practices. This research effort is an early step, designed to confirm anecdotal evidence and answer some basic questions about advocacy evaluation practice. During the analysis of these initial data, several additional questions have arisen about advocacy and evaluation. These questions, included in the conclusion of the report, suggest a direction for possible future research.

Institute for Human Rights. (2005). Report of Turku Expert Meeting on Human Rights Indicators. Abo: Abo Akedemi University, Institute for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

This brief report addresses the conclusions and advances by the expert meeting especially with regard to the notion of indicators and their conceptual framework in the context of the assessment of compliance with human rights treaties by human rights treaty bodies. It addresses also the benefits and the potential disadvantages of the use of indicators in the context of compliance assessment that was put forth by the participants during the expert meeting. The discussion concerning the use of human rights indicators in the human rights compliance assessment performed by the treaty bodies should be seen against the background of the revision of the reporting guidelines concerning human rights treaties and the treaty body reform in general. It is submitted that proper selection and use of human rights indicators is one dimension of the movement within the United Nations human rights programme from standard-setting to effective implementation of existing standards.

Kapoor, I. (1996). Indicators for Programming in Human Rights and Democratic Development: A Preliminary Study. Quebec: CIDA. Retrieved from:$file/INDICENG.pdf

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a preliminary study on the development and use of indicators to track progress towards results in human rights and democratic development programming.

The paper draws on recent academic and donor reports and on interviews carried out with CIDA project officers, representatives of CIDA executing agencies, and other governmental and non-governmental donor/research organizations (see appended interview list). The paper begins by briefly outlining the experience of development organizations in measuring results in political development. It then examines some of the methodological issues relating to performance indicators, generally, and human rights and democratic development programming indicators, in particular. Finally, after suggesting an approach that integrates qualitative, quantitative and participatory methods of evaluating political development, the paper examines results-based indicators at both the (corporate) policy and the project/programme levels.

Keck, M., & Sikkink, K. (1998). Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

The authors examine a type of pressure group that has been largely ignored by political analysts: networks of activists that coalesce and operate across national frontiers. Their targets may be international organizations or the policies of particular states. Historical examples of such transborder alliances include anti-slavery and woman suffrage campaigns. In the past two decades, transnational activism has had a significant impact in human rights, especially in Latin America, and advocacy networks have strongly influenced environmental politics as well. The authors also examine the emergence of an international campaign around violence against women.

Keith, L. (1999). The United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Does it Make a Difference in Human Rights Behavior? Journal of Peace Research, 36(1), 95-118. Retrieved from:

Formal acceptance of international agreements on human rights has progressed to the point where currently over three-quarters of the UN member states are parties to the International Covenant on Political and Civil Rights. In fact, becoming a party to this covenant seems to be concomitant with joining the UN. Of the newly independent states in Eastern Europe and in the region of the former Soviet Union, only Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Moldova, and Macedonia have not joined the treaty. This article tests empirically whether becoming a party to this international treaty (and its optional protocol) has an observable impact on the state party's actual behavior. The hypothesis is tested across 178 countries over an eighteen-year period (1976-93) and across four different measures of state human rights behavior. Initial bivariate analyses demonstrate some statistically significant differences between the behavior of states parties and the behavior of non-party states. However, this difference does not appear in the bivariate analysis that compares the states parties' behavior before becoming a party to the treaty with their behavior after becoming a party state. When the analysis progresses to more sophisticated multivariate analysis, in which factors known to affect human rights are controlled, the impact of the covenant and its optional protocol disappears altogether. Overall, this study suggests that it may be overly optimistic to expect that being a party to this international covenant will produce an observable direct impact.

Kirbey, M. (1998). Indicators for the Implementation of Human Rights. Paris: UNESCO, Division of Human Rights, Peace and Democracy. Retrieved from:

Landman, T. (2004). Measuring Human Rights: Practice and Policy. Human Rights Quarterly, 26(4),906–931. Retrieved from:

This paper demonstrates why human rights measurement is important, how human rights have been measured to date, and how such measures can be improved in the future. Through focusing primarily but not exclusively on the measurement of civil and political rights, the paper argues that human rights can be measured in principle, in practice, and as outcomes of government policy. Such measures include the coding of formal legal documents, events-based, standards-based, and survey-based data, as well as aggregate indicators that serve as indirect measures of rights protection. The paper concludes by stressing the need for continued provision of high quality information at the lowest level of aggregation, sharing information and developing an ethos of replication, and long term investment in data collection efforts.

Landman, T. (2005). Protecting Human Rights: A Comparative Study. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

This book provides a quantitative analysis of the marked gap between the principle and practice of human rights. Applying theories and methods from the fields of international law, international relations, and comparative politics, Landman examines data from 193 countries over 25 years (1976-2000) to assess the growth of the international human rights regime, the effect of law on actual protection, and global variation in human rights norms.

This book contends that human rights foreign policy remains based more on geo-strategic interest than moral internationalism. He argues that the influence human rights ideals have begun to have on states cannot be separated from the broader impact of socioeconomic changes that swept the globe in the late twentieth century. Landman concludes that international law alone will not suffice to fully protect human rights: it must be accompanied by democratic government, effective conflict resolution, and just economic systems.

Landman, T., & Häusermann, J. (2003). Map Making and Analysis of the Main International Initiatives on Developing Indicators on Democracy and Good Governance. (Eurostat Contract No. 200221200005). Essex: University of Essex, Human Rights Centre. Retrieved from:

Democracy, human rights and good governance can be measured in many different ways, and this is reflected in the wide variety of initiatives that have developed such indicators. This project for the Statistical Office of the European Commission collates and evaluates existing initiatives. It also makes recommendations for the development of more efficient measurement tools.

Liebowitz, D. (2008). Respect, Protect, Fulfill: Raising the Bar on Women’s Rights in San Francisco. San Francisco: The Women’s Institute for Leadership Development for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

This report is an attempt to clarify and strengthen implementation efforts and government accountability to ensure that human rights are fully realized in San Francisco. The assessment acknowledges the challenges faced by the City and County of San Francisco in the face of budget cuts and limited power of DOSW. Nonetheless, steps can be taken within the context of current resources that could amplify the impact of the Ordinance and ensure that a long-term plan is developed that incorporates community participation. To comprehensively implement the ordinance, the city agencies and the DOSW must go beyond the gender analysis and ensure the full integration of rights in service delivery, resource allocations, and employment practices. Trainings by human rights experts are critical in ensuring CEDAW is implemented properly and holistically.

Maguire, S. (2007). Child Rights Climate within the UK’s Department for International Development. London: DFID. Retrieved from:

This study was commissioned by DFID, a group of NGOs and UNICEF UK to look into the “child rights climate” within DFID. It follows on from other reviews into intergenerational poverty issues and human rights. The main purposes of the study were to assess the perceptions of and approaches towards child rights used by DFID in its development cooperation and to recommend ways in which DFID can better promote, protect and fulfil the rights of children in its work within the framework of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

Marston, A. (2007). Labor Monitoring in Cambodia’s Garment Industry: Lessons for Africa. New York: Realizing Rights. Retrieved from:

Cambodia’s garment industry and the challenges it has faced in implementing a pilot labor monitoring program instituted through a US-Cambodia bilateral trade agreement provide important lessons for other countries, particularly those in Africa, as they struggle to balance the demands of market competition with the protection of workers” human rights.

This paper explores the extent to which labor monitoring in Cambodia has helped resolve the myriad challenges that workers face, particularly given the end of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) which regulated garment exports to US and EU markets over the past 30 years. It concludes by drawing together a number of lessons from Cambodia’s experience that are of relevance to other developing nations seeking to foster economic and social development while ensuring respect for fundamental rights. Among these lessons are the necessity for transparency and multi-stakeholder support for monitoring, a functioning judiciary to resolve labor disputes, government support for unions, and gender sensitivity in monitoring and program development.

McGuigan, C. (2003). Closing the Circle: From Measuring Policy Change to Assessing Policies in Practice: An Overview of Advocacy Impact Assessment. London: Save the Children. Retrieved from:

This paper presents an overview of the current literature regarding the impact assessment of advocacy. This is a growing area of interest as more non-governmental organizations (NGOs) become involved in advocacy and policy work. Save the Children UK, in its shift towards a rights-based approach to development, has become involved in more advocacy initiatives at local, national and international levels and, like many Northern NGOs, is continuously charged with making difficult organizational choices regarding resource allocation, staffing and management. Save the Children UK is therefore concerned with ensuring its advocacy work is cost-effective and capable of bringing about real changes in children’s lives. Improving advocacy impact assessment is, therefore, critical in ensuring the organization’s accountability to the children and communities it supports, while at the same time demonstrating to donors and management the impact of its advocacy work.

Meijer, M. (2005). The Scope of Impunity in Indonesia. Utrecht: Aim for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

This paper has analysed mechanisms of impunity in Indonesia, and tried to find patterns that can be tackled and to give recommendations for priorities in the fight against impunity. Impunity is the impossibility, de jure or de facto, of bringing the perpetrators of violations to account—whether in criminal, civil, administrative or disciplinary proceedings—since they are not subject to any inquiry that might lead to their being accused, arrested, tried and, if found guilty, sentenced to appropriate penalties, and to making reparations to their victims.

The analysis has been structured by using a human rights impact assessment methodology with the following steps:

  1. The current situation – a description on the basis of international and Indonesian human rights reports to give an overview of current violations (2004–2005).
  2. The political context – focused on impunity it evolved in the analysis of patterns of impunity in the period 1965-2005.
  3. The objective for change – focused on fighting impunity by using the UN guidelines by Orentlicher.
  4. The issues to be monitored – listing the issues where the patterns of impunity conflict with the objectives for change resulted in a number of specific indicators to be monitored.
  5. The conclusions and recommendations – including priorities for change and advocacy.

Melito, T. (2007). Human Trafficking:Monitoring and Evaluation of International Projects Are Limited, but Experts Suggest Improvements. (GAO-07-1034)Washington, DC: General Accounting Office. Retrieved from:

A GAO-convened panel of experts identified and discussed ways to address the factors that make it difficult to monitor and evaluate anti-trafficking projects. Panelists' suggested approaches included improving information on the nature and severity of trafficking and addressing monitoring and evaluation in project design. To improve information on trafficking, panelists suggested methods that have been used to sample other hard-to-reach populations, including domestic violence victims. One suggested method is sampling of “hot spots”—an intensive search for victims in areas known to have high concentrations of victims. To address weaknesses in project design that impede monitoring and evaluation, panelists suggested that officials design projects that clearly link activities to intended outcomes, identify measurable indicators, and establish procedures for setting and modifying targets.

Menocal, A., & Sharma, B. (2008). Citizens' Voice and Accountability: Understanding What Works and Doesn't Work in Donor Approaches. London: DFID. Retrieved from:

The quality of governance is recognised as one of the central factors affecting development prospects in poor countries. Citizens' voice and government accountability ('CV&A') are important dimensions of governance. Citizens' capacity to express and exercise their views effectively is believed to have the potential to influence government priorities and processes, including a stronger demand for responsiveness, transparency and accountability. Governments that can be held accountable for their actions, for their part, are assumed to be more likely to respond to the needs and demands articulated by their population.

To date, there have been only limited attempts to evaluate donor interventions to support CV&A. A joint evaluation commissioned by a group of donors represents an effort to bridge that gap (see Box 1). The evaluation was intended to deepen understanding of what works and what does not work in donor support to CV&A, and to uncover the reasons why, drawing on experiences from seven country case studies and fifty-seven interventions.

Neumayer, E. (2005). Do International Human Rights Treaties Improve Respect for Human Rights? Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(6), 925-953. Retrieved from:

After the nonbinding Universal Declaration of Human Rights, many global and regional human rights treaties have been concluded. Critics argue that these are unlikely to have made any actual difference in reality. Others contend that international regimes can improve respect for human rights in state parties, particularly in more democratic countries or countries with a strong civil society devoted to human rights and with transnational links. The findings suggest that rarely does treaty ratification have unconditional effects on human rights. Instead, improvement in human rights is typically more likely the more democratic the country or the more international nongovernmental organizations its citizens participate in. Conversely, in very autocratic regimes with weak civil society, ratification can be expected to have no effect and is sometimes even associated with more rights violation.

Norwegian Centre for Human Rights. (2006). Justice and Human Rights Initiative: Workshop on Developing Justice and Human Rights Indicators. Oslo: University of Oslo. Retrieved from:

This paper reports on the main issues discussed during the Workshop. It first refers to the Measuring Justice Initiative; second it describes and assesses main methodological issues related to this Initiative (that are also discussed in some detail in the Background Paper); third, it reviews other and parallel indicators projects. In section four, it goes into some detail on a key issue – that is, the notion of justice as discussed at the Workshop, and its relationship to human rights. In section five, substantive points from the group discussions on justice areas as concerns substantive areas and target groups are reviewed; in section six justice scenarios and components of an indicators” matrix are reviewed; section seven reports some reflection on a human rights and justice trust fund; and in section eight, a brief assessment of the debates and outcome of the Workshop is made.

Okafor, C.O. (2007). The African Human Rights System: Activist Forces and International Institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.

This book draws from and builds upon many of the more traditional approaches to the study of international human rights institutions (IHIs), especially quasi-constructivism. The author reveals some of the ways in which many such domestic deployments of the African system have been brokered or facilitated by local activist forces, such as human rights NGOs, labour unions, women's groups, independent journalists, dissident politicians, and activist judges. In the end, the book exposes and reflects upon the inherent inability of the dominant compliance-focused model to adequately capture the range of other ways - apart from via state compliance - in which the domestic invocation of IHIs like the African system can contribute - albeit to a modest extent - to the pro-human rights alterations that can sometimes occur in the self-understandings, conceptions of interest or senses of appropriateness held within key domestic institutions within states.

An inter-disciplinary book that will appeal to policy makers and researchers across the social sciences. The book looks at the effects that international human rights institutions and regional human rights systems have domestically within states and uses detailed case studies from Nigeria and South Africa

Okafor, C.O. (2006). Legitimizing Human Rights NGOs: Lessons from Nigeria. Treton, NJ & Asmara, Eritrea: Africa World Press.

The book empirically demonstrates the claim that if human rights NGOs in Nigeria are to popularly legitimate themselves, and therefore achieve much more influence, then almost all of them must undergo a fundamental re-orientation in their institutional forms, conceptual approaches, and activist methods. The book also suggests that given the available evidence, its conclusions are likely to serve as a guide for optimizing the influence of other human rights NGO communities in Africa, and even beyond. In the end, the book argues that nothing less than a transition to a mass movement model will ensure the popular legitimization of most Nigerian and African human rights NGO communities. More specifically, the book argues that most of these NGOs will need to do almost all of the following if they are to overcome the popular legitimization crisis that they currently face and begin to acquire the desired levels of social influence within the polity:

  • Cultivate a broad based and active membership that is sourced from the grassroots, and that exercises far more real power within the relevant organization.
  • Democratize much more deeply their internal decision-making structures and operations, in a way that cedes far more real institutional power to the membership.
  • Democratize much more deeply the process through which they formulate and prioritize their activist agendas.
  • Seek to overcome their generally elitist and urban-centered institutional character by working much more actively with and within the majority rural population of Nigeria.
  • Take economic/social rights activism, gender issues, rural issues, and minority/environmental rights activism much more seriously.
  • Seek to source much more of its resources locally. The more these NGOs are able to raise funds from their local constituencies, the more they will secure the commitment of the ordinary people

Oskar N.T., Ron, J., & Paris, R. (2008). The Effects of Transitional Justice Mechanisms: A Summary of Empirical Research and Findings and Implications for Analysts and Practitioners. Ottawa: Center for International Policy Studies. Retrieved from:

The main purpose of this report is to answer a simple question: What do we know about the effects of specific TJ mechanisms on the societies that have undergone these processes?A tremendous amount of material has been written on individual TJ cases, providing considerable information. But what are the general observations or lessons that can be drawn these cases and applied to existing or future transitional societies? Our goal is to contribute to an evidence-based approach urging policymakers to avail themselves of the best social scientific evidence before making crucial decisions. To this end, we surveyed many of the major social scientific studies produced to date, as well as several promising works that have yet to be published.

Paes de Barros, R., Ferreira, F., Molinas Vega, J., & Chanduvi, J. (2009). Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington DC: World Bank.

Over the past decade, faster growth and smarter social policy have reversed the trend in Latin America's poverty. Too slowly and insufficiently, but undeniably, the percentage of Latinos who are poor has at long last begun to fall. This has shifted the political and policy debates from poverty toward inequality, something to be expected in a region that exhibits the world's most regressive distribution of development outcomes such as income, land ownership, and educational achievement. This book is a breakthrough in the measurement of human opportunity. It builds sophisticated formulas to answer a rather simple question: how much influence do personal circumstances have on the access that children get to the basic services that are necessary for a productive life? Needless to say, producing a methodology to measure human opportunity, and applying it across countries in one region, is just a first step. On the one hand, technical discussions and scientific vetting will continue, and refinements will surely follow. On the other, applying the new tool to a single country will allow for adjustments that make the findings much more useful to its policy realities. And fascinating comparative lessons could be learned by measuring human opportunity in developed countries across, say, the states of the United States or the nations of Europe. But the main message this book delivers remains a powerful one: it is possible to make equity a central purpose, if not the very definition, of development.

Peterson, L. (2009). Human Rights and Bilateral Investment Treaties: Mapping the role of human rights law within investor-state arbitration. (The Investment and Human Rights Initiative, Vol. 3). Montreal: Rights and Democracy. Retrieved from:

This publication provides analysis of the impact of bilateral investment treaties and arbitration processes on human rights.

Radstaake, M., & Brankhorst, D. (2002). Matching Practice with Principles: Human Rights Impact Assessment, EU Opportunities. Utrecht: Aim for Human Rights. Retrieved from:

At all levels of EU political decision making, human rights impact should be taken into account. Human Rights Impact Assessment (HRIA) is a means to ensure that this is being done in a systematic way. The Netherlands Humanist Committee on Human Rights (HOM), has explored ways in which HRIA could be made an effective instrument and so improve the quality of European Union policies. HOM convened several meetings to discuss approaches towards human rights measurement and impact assessment. At the Conference on Human Rights Impact Assessment organised by HOM in Brussels (November 2001), participants elaborated on the question of how to implement HRIA in EU decision making processes. The findings are reflected in this report.

Rain, F. (2006). The Measurement Challenge in Human Rights. Sur: International Journal on Human Rights, 4(3), 6-29. Retrieved from:

Up until recently, the human rights movement has been reluctant to engage on the topic of measurement, highlighting the difficulties involved and resisting pressure from donors to comply with impact assessment standards developed in other fields. This paper argues that measurement techniques are, indeed, very problem specific and that they must be linked to a refined understanding of the mechanics of a problem. Given the need for progress on the pressing issues of human rights, it is all the more important that civil society organizations move out of their defensive position regarding measurement and begin developing models for the two large measurement challenges: (1) how do we size the problem and understand how it is developing over time? and (2) how do we understand the impact that we are having on the problem itself? This paper outlines how Civil Society Organizations can increase their effectiveness by using measurement and data to gain a clearer idea of what problem they are trying to solve, a better idea of how to mark their progress in striving toward that goal, and an understanding of what place their efforts have in a broader context of civil society problem-solvers. While addressing the specific difficulties that human rights organizations face in the process of self-evaluation, this paper proposes steps that would guide human rights organizations on the road to increasing their impact.

Rajeev M., & Fasel, N. (2005). Report on Indicators for Monitoring Compliance with International Human Rights Instruments. Geneva: United Nations, OHCHR. Retrieved from:$FILE/G0641960.pdf

This paper starts in section I by clarifying the notion of human rights indicators and provides the rationale for using quantitative indicators in monitoring the implementation of human rights treaties. This is followed in sections II and III by a brief outline of the conceptual and methodological framework for identifying indicators, respectively. The annex includes tables listing illustrative indicators for four identified human rights, namely the right to life, the right to judicial review of detention, the right to adequate food and the right to health. The selection of these rights was guided by the concern to include human rights reflected in the two covenants, as well as the desire to cover standards on substantive and procedural rights at the first instance. Based on the conclusions and recommendations of the two expert consultations, the concluding section brings together some issues and observations for the consideration of the inter-committee meeting of treaty bodies that may be relevant for identifying a possible follow-up to this work.

Rajeev M., & Fasel, N. (2005). Quantitative Human Rights Indicators: A Survey of Major Initiatives. Geneva: UN, OHCHR. Retrieved from:

This paper provides an overview and assessment of some major attempts and approaches to develop quantitative human rights and related indicators that have been variously used for human rights monitoring in recent times. A major objective of the paper is to show the depth and scale of information and indicators that have been used by States, intergovernmental organizations and civil society in this context. The paper surveys initiatives on indicators that are explicitly anchored in human rights standards, as well as those that are commonly categorized as “socio-economic statistics”. More specifically, the paper seeks to highlight the main categories of initiatives on human rights indicators, illustrate them with representative examples and analyze the elements that each category of initiatives could potentially bring to the process and methodology for human rights monitoring. This survey is by no means exhaustive. It has drawn from some recent attempts at mapping and surveys of human rights and related indicators and some earlier studies. A primary consideration in the selection and assessment of initiatives and the related indicators has been their suitability for use in monitoring the compliance of States parties with international human rights treaties. As a result the focus has essentially been on quantitative indicators that are based on objective methods of data collection and presentation.

Reinbold, G. (2008). Human Rights Reasons for Preferring Individual Measures of Inequality to Aggregate Measures. (Issue Paper, Vol. 1, Issue 1). Cambridge: Carr Center for the Study of Human Rights. Retrieved from:

After comparing aggregate measures and individual measure of inequality, this paper shows why studies of the impact of economic inequality on human development outcomes should use inequality measures that are unique to individuals.

Rights and Democracy. (2007). Human Rights Impact Assessments for Foreign Investment Projects: Learning from community experiences in the Philippines, Tibet, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Argentina, and Peru. (The Investment and Human Rights Initiative. Vol. 1). Montreal: Rights and Democracy. Retrieved from:

Rights & Democracy launched a three year project in 2004 to develop and test a draft methodology for human rights impact assessments of foreign investment projects. This report presents its results. The project focused its research at the community level and selected five case studies to test the methodology and accompanying research guide. The revised methodology was published in 2009 (see Brodeur above)

Risse, T., Stephen, R., & Sikkink, K. (Eds). (1999). The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.

A sophisticated inquiry into when and how international human rights norms change state behavior, tracing the way transnational advocacy groups, international organizations, Western states, and domestic opposition groups interact to put pressure on offending governments. The authors offer an elaborate model of the spread of the norms in which persuasion, sanctions, coalition building, and domestic institutions all effect political change. Cases drawn from Asia, Latin America, Africa, and eastern Europe tell the story of an international system -- increasingly dense in human rights groups, multilateral agreements, and entangling norms -- that can isolate illiberal regimes and push them to reform; South Africa, Chile, and the Philippines, among other cases, are probed. The authors argue that this changed international environment is ultimately more important than specific country features and economics in explaining the spread of human rights norms around the world. The conclusion draws useful lessons for policymakers and advocates alike, stressing the importance of carrots, sticks, and the combined efforts of the world community.

Roberts Environmental Center & Global Reporting Initiative. (2008). Reporting on Human Rights. Amsterdam: Global Reporting Initiative. Retrieved from:

The Global Reporting Initiative and the Roberts Environmental Center (a research institute at Claremont McKenna College) conducted a survey of corporate human rights reporting based on information published by 100 large companies from around the world.

The survey focused on evaluating the extent to which performance information is reported by companies to describe their compliance with widely accepted human rights objectives. In particular, compliance with the GRI G3 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines on human rights was assessed. In addition, information was compiled on the range of topics dealt with as human rights, the kinds of information reported, and the organizational structure of reporting.

Ron, J., Ramos, H., & Rodgers, K. (2005). Transnational Information Politics: NGO Human Rights Reporting, 1986-2000. International Studies Quarterly, 49(3), 557-588. Retrieved from:

What shapes the transnational activist agenda? Do non-governmental organizations with a global mandate focus on the world’s most pressing problems, or is their reporting also affected by additional considerations? To address these questions, the authors study the determinants of country reporting by an exemplary transnational actor, Amnesty International, during 1986–2000. They find that while human rights conditions are associated with the volume of their country reporting, other factors also matter, including previous reporting efforts, state power, U.S. military assistance, and a country’s media profile. Drawing on interviews with Amnesty and Human Rights Watch staff, the authors interpret their findings as evidence of Amnesty International’s social movement-style “information politics.” The group produces more written work on some countries than others to maximize advocacy opportunities, shape international standards, promote greater awareness, and raise its profile. This approach has both strengths and weaknesses, which this article considers after extending the analysis to other transnational sectors.

Rosga, A., & Satterthwaite, M. (2008). The Trust in Indicators: Measuring Human Rights. (NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 08-59),Berkley Journal of International Law (BJIL), Forthcoming. Retrieved from:

This Article closely examines the use of indicators by U.N. bodies charged with monitoring State compliance with human rights treaties. The Article places these efforts to create human rights indicators in conversation with scholarship on audit and standardization from the social sciences.

The Article unfolds as follows: in Section I, we explore some of the conditions leading to the increasing reliance on indicators for monitoring the fulfillment and/or enjoyment of international human rights, especially economic and social rights. Using the example of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, we consider the way in which that treaty's monitoring committee has shifted from attempting to create and directly apply indicators in the measurement of compliance with treaty obligations to calling on States to identify and implement their own indicators. In Section II, we discuss several of the problems integral to the use of indicators in human rights contexts and what those difficulties have in common with the wider turn to auditing practices in management and control contexts. In Section III, we examine the ongoing efforts of the human rights treaty bodies and the U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to create international indicators applicable to all States, and we assess that effort in light of the problems discussed in Section II, as well as considering issues of authority and judgment in human rights law. Section IV considers human rights indicators as a technology of global governance, warning that-if not carefully designed to do otherwise-human rights compliance indicators have a tendency to close off spaces for participation and democratic contestation.

Sano, H., & Lone, L. (2000). Human Rights Indicators: Country Data and Methodology. Copenhagen:Danish Institute for Human Rights.Retrieved from:

The purpose of this publication is to provide project managers, partners as well as external stakeholders in Denmark and in the countries where we work, with tools of assessments which allow international comparison in terms of processes of democratization, compliance with fundamental human rights, and a broader range of related subjects such a development problems, crime levels, and intra-regional movements of people.

The document contains three parts: one illustrating human rights commitment, mostly at the regional level, a second indicating government compliance with civil and political rights, and a third providing data and observations from the regional data base. The latter also contains detailed information on human rights commitment of states. The theoretical and methodological basis for the present development of indicators is available as part II of this volume.

Sikkink, K. (2004). Mixed Signals: U.S. Human Rights Policy and Latin America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Kathryn Sikkink believes that the adoption of human rights policy represents a positive change in the relationship between the United States and Latin America. Mixed Signals traces a gradual but remarkable shift in U.S. foreign policy over the last generation. By the 1970s, an unthinking anticommunist stance had tarnished the reputation of the U.S. government throughout Latin America, associating Washington with tyrannical and often brutally murderous regimes. Sikkink recounts the reemergence of human rights as a substantive concern, showing how external pressures from activist groups and the institution of a human rights bureau inside the State Department have combined to remake Washington’s agenda, and its image, in Latin America. The current war against terrorism, Sikkink warns, could repeat the mistakes of the past unless we insist that the struggle against terrorism be conducted with respect for human rights and the rule of law.

Sikkink, K., & Walling, C. (2007). The Justice Cascade and the Impact of Human Rights Trials in Latin America. Journal of Peace Research, 44(4),427-445.

Since the 1980s, states have been increasingly addressing past human rights violations using multiple transitional justice mechanisms including domestic and international human rights trials. In the mid-1980s, scholars of transitions to democracy generally concluded that trials for past human rights violations were politically untenable and likely to undermine new democracies. More recently, some international relations experts have echoed the pessimistic claims of the early `trial skeptics' and added new concerns about the impact of trials. Yet, relatively little multicountry empirical work has been done to test such claims, in part because no database on trials was available. The authors have created a new dataset of two main transitional justice mechanisms: truth commissions and trials for past human rights violations. With the new data, they document the emergence and dramatic growth of the use of truth commissions and domestic, foreign, and international human rights trials in the world. The authors then explore the impact that human rights trials have on human rights, conflict, democracy, and rule of law in Latin America. Their analysis suggests that the pessimistic claims of skeptics that human rights trials threaten democracy, increase human rights violations, and exacerbate conflict are not supported by empirical evidence from Latin America.

Simmons, B. (1998). Compliance with International Agreements. Annual Review of Political Science, 1, 75-93. Retrieved from:

The study of compliance with international agreements has gained momentum over the past few years. Since the conclusion of World War II, this research agenda had been marginalized by the predominance of realist approaches to the study of international relations. However, alternative perspectives have developed that suggest that international law and institutions are important influences on the conduct of international politics. This review examines four perspectives and assesses their contribution to understanding the conditions under which states comply with international agreements. Despite severe conceptual and methodological problems, this research has contributed significantly to our understanding of the relationship between international politics and international law and institutions.

Snyder, J., & Vinjamuri, L. (2004). Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice. International Security, 28(3), 5-44. Retrieved from:

Do international criminal tribunals prevent mass atrocities and other gross human rights abuses? According to Jack Snyder of Columbia University and Leslie Vinjamuri of Georgetown University, recent tribunals such as those convened to prosecute war crimes in Yugoslavia and Central Africa “have utterly failed to deter subsequent abuses.” In contrast, amnesties and truth commissions have succeeded largely because they solicit cooperation from powerful actors with vested interests in the outcome. Snyder and Vinjamuri maintain that preventing atrocities and strengthening respect for the law often require “striking politically expedient bargains that create effective coalitions to contain the power of potential perpetrators of abuses.” This pragmatic approach, the authors argue, is key to the establishment of a norm-governed political order and effective administrative institutions.

SOFRECO. (2007). Comparative Evaluation of the Human Rights Projects and Interventions of the European Union in the Philippines and Cambodia (Framework Contract number 2006/120036 Lot 4). Philippines Delegation of the European Commission. Retrieved from:

The Philippines Delegation of the European Commission (EC), together with the EC Delegation in Cambodia, contracted the ECORYS consortium to carry out a comparative evaluation of the human rights and interventions of the European Union in the Philippines and Cambodia. This evaluation, undertaken between February and May 2007, included a portfolio of 16 projects; 6 in Cambodia and 10 in the Philippines. Review of these projects, some completed and some still underway, formed the core of the evaluation. The evaluation also included meetings with other stakeholders to assess other interventions related to human rights made by both the respective Delegations of the European Commission and Member States. Reference has also been made to interventions related to human rights in the two countries at both regional and international level.

Thanenthiran, S., & Khan, A. (2007). Rights and Realities: Monitoring Reports on the Status of Indonesian Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights--Findings from the Indonesian Reproductive Health and Rights Monitoring & Advocacy (IRRMA) Project. Kuala Lumpur: ARROW. Retrieved from:

Despite some progress in the development of laws, policies and programmes that provide for the fulfilment of reproductive health and rights in Indonesia, access to affordable and comprehensive services remains limited, especially for vulnerable groups such as poor and marginalised women as well as women who live in remote areas.

Concerned with this slow progress on ICPD, the Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW), in cooperation with Ford Foundation, took the initiative to bring together eight countries in Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan and the Philippines, to combine efforts in monitoring the implementation of international commitments on SRHR by governments and parliaments in the region, under the project entitled “Monitoring Ten Years of ICPD Implementation: The Way Forward to 2015”.

Thoms, O.N., Paris, R., & Ron, J. (2009). Transitional Justice Impacts: Evidence from the Social Sciences. Manuscript.

Thoms, O.N., & Ron, J. (2007).Public Health, Conflict, & Human Rights: An Agenda for Collaborative Research. Conflict & Health, 1(11), 1-38. Retrieved from:

Although epidemiology is increasingly contributing to policy debates on issues of conflict and human rights, its potential is still underutilized. As a result, this article calls for greater collaboration between public health researchers, conflict analysts and human rights monitors, with special emphasis on retrospective, population-based surveys. The article surveys relevant recent public health research, explains why collaboration is useful, and outlines possible future research scenarios, including those pertaining to the indirect and long-term consequences of conflict; human rights and security in conflict prone areas; and the link between human rights, conflict, and International Humanitarian Law.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2009). UNHCR evaluation reports (1994~present).New York: United Nations, UNHCR.Available online at:

Electronic versions of all evaluation reports produced by UNHCR since 1994 are available in full text on this site. Hard copies of earlier reports are also available upon request.

Vignard, K. (Ed.) (2004). Human Rights, Human Security and Disarmament. UNDIR Disarmament Forum, 2004(3). Geneva: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research. Links to chapters available at:


WITNESS. (2009) WITNESS Performance Dashboard. Mid-Year Report FY09. New York: WITNESS. Retrieved from:

WITNESS takes seriously its responsibility to generate real outcomes and hold itself accountable to the Partners, supporters and individuals whose safety and security often hinge on WITNESS” work. To monitor these efforts, WITNESS pioneered a Performance Dashboard with a series of at-a-glance metrics that quantify WITNESS” performance. Using the Dashboard, WITNESS can track the number of videos produced, trainings conducted, activism the Web site and Hub generate, media coverage, and the impact of campaigns on existing policies and practices.

WITNESS” Performance Dashboard is frequently cited as a model system for tracking performance by other non-profits and donors. In keeping with WITNESS” non-proprietary approach, Dashboard reports are published twice annually on WITNESS” Web site, and are available under a Creative Commons license so they can be adapted for use by other organizations.

World Health Organization. (2004). Consultation on Indicators for the Right to Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Ethics, Trade, Human Rights and Health Law. Retrieved from:

This document provides an overview of the presentations and discussions on the issue of right to health indicators from a workshop held 1-2 April 2004.

  • Part A (Background and rationale) explains the origins and aims of the concept of right to health indicators, as well as the ultimate objective of this series of consultations.
  • Part B (Proposed frameworks and related concepts/initiatives) describes the framework proposed by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health (Paul Hunt) on right to health indicators.
  • Part C (Related conceptual frameworks to human rights) provides an overview of two presentations on (1) the Commission on Human Security's work on human security and the social minimum and (2) WHO's work on Millennium Development Goals and equity.
  • Part D (Work in progress and mapping exercises) contains summaries of a number of presentations relating to ongoing work relevant to right to health indicators.
  • Part E (Conclusions) list ways forward and activities to be completed before the next meeting (tentatively planned for June 2005).

Other Impact Resources


Government Aid & Development Agencies

Agence Française de Développement (AFD)

Marta, F., Archer, F., O’Neil, T., & Longhurt, R. (2007). A Comparative Study of Evaluation Policies and Practices in Development Agencies. Paris: Agence Française de Développement. Retrieved from:

This report aims to understand experiences and challenges in implementing development evaluation reform and to assess a variety of solutions, looking at different development institutions. It compares policies and practices across institutions, looking at different choices and their consequences, as well as strengths and weaknesses. The analysis also identifies the main internal and/or external factors involved for each institution, after reviews of management arrangements and structural position of evaluation units, their main features, processes and tools, and practices involved in commissioning, managing and supporting evaluation processes.

The Australian Government’s Aid Program (AusAID)

Australian Agency for International Development. (2004). Activity-level Monitoring & Evaluation. Canberra: AusAID. Retrieved from:

This guide assists AusAID staff, contractors, NGOs and partners to plan and implement good quality monitoring and evaluation (M&E) arrangements for activities. It supports AusAID guidance on managing the design process and completing Quality at Entry and Quality at Implementation Assessments.

Australian Agency for International Development. Aid and Effectiveness Reports. [Webpage]. Canberra: AusAID. Available online at:

Aid and effectiveness reports from 2001-present

Australian Agency for International Development. (2005). AusGuide: A Guide to Program Management. Canberra: AusAID. Retrieved from:

AusGuide is a manual for aid practitioners which consolidate AusAID's core principles and practices for achieving aid quality. It presents AusAID's core corporate guidance on these matters. It is intended to provide an analytical understanding of our main aid quality principles and practices, and how they fit together into an overall system of program management, and a range of advice and tools on how to undertake significant tasks and responsibilities.

Its purpose is to support the effective and efficient management of the Australian Government aid programs managed by AusAID. To this end, AusGuide provides an operational framework within which AusAID officers can undertake the core business of program management, a set of decision options at different stages of program management which aim to promote both clear decision making and operational flexibility, a set of analytical tools, detailed guidelines and quality requirements which will help promote good practice and enable officers to deliver the aid program with excellence, and material for designing and delivering training in program management for AusAID staff.

Australian Agency for International Development. Evaluation Reports (1997-2004). [Webpage]. Canberra: AusAID. Available online at:

This web page provides evaluation reports of a variety of aid programs commissioned by AUSaid since 1997.

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

Canadian International Development Agency. Evaluation Reports (1998-2008).[Webpage]. Gatineau: CIDA. Available online at:

This web page provides various evaluation reports of aid programs conducted by CIDA from 1998 to 2008.

Jones, R., Young, V., & Stanley, C. (2004). CIDA Evaluation Guide. Gatineau: Canadian International Development Agency. Retrieved from:$file/English_E_guide.pdf

The “CIDA Evaluation Guide” documents the Agency’s current approach for evaluating development cooperation policies, programs and projects. It sets out the process to be followed, acceptable standards of performance, appropriate work practices, and guidelines for achieving success. The Guide is designed to promote and facilitate informed decision–making throughout the evaluation process: from the planning/design stage, then implementation, through to reporting and the sharing of results.

Danish International Development Agency (Danida)

Danish International Development Agency. Development Policy Evaluations. Copenhagen: Danida. Available online at:

Evaluation reports from 1991 – present are available online.

Danish International Development Agency. (2006). Evaluation Guidelines. Copenhagen: Danish International Development Agency. Retrieved from:

The primary purpose of the Evaluation Guidelines is to communicate to partners and external consultants Danida’s expectations of the quality of evaluations carried out on its behalf. Because quality touches on different aspects of the evaluative enterprise such as use, methodology and management, the guidelines explain Danida’s approach to evaluation of development interventions and identify those attributes it considers important to quality. The guidelines constitute a framework for achieving quality that is built on principles, criteria, standards, good practices and information about Danida’s evaluation process.

Danish International Development Agency. Indicators in Sectors. [Webpage]. Available online at:

The objective of the content of this page is to present some ideas for what could be relevant indicators in various sectors. The technical notes are developed or commissioned by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department for Technical Advisory Services. Indicators can be downloaded for the following sectors:

UK Department for International Development (DFID)

Department for International Development. Evaluation Studies. London: DFID. Available online at:

DFID evaluation publications can be searched according to theme.

Jones, N., Walsh, C., Jones, H., and Tincati, C. (2008). Improving Impact Evaluation Coordination and Uptake. London: Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved from:

This report aims to provide an overview of existing approaches to the commissioning, implementation and uptake of impact evaluations, and based on an assessment of strengths and weaknesses, make recommendations to DFID and the Network of Networks for Impact Evaluations about how to strengthen the coordination, coverage, quality and usage of impact evaluation initiatives. The study was undertaken under tight time constraints and makes no claims to being exhaustive in scope. Instead it combines a) an analysis of existing web-based and published literature on impact evaluations, as well as the use of evaluations in policy processes more broadly, b) a scoping study of evaluation databases, c) a review of coordination good practice in other fields, and d) telephone interviews with key informants to develop tentative recommendations to inform NONIE deliberations on mechanisms to strengthen the coordination of impact evaluation generation and communication.

Skuse, A., Butler, N., Power, F., Woods N. (2005). Radio Broadcasting for Health: A Decision Makers Guide. London: Information and Communication for Development, Department for International Development. Retrieved from:

These guidelines are meant for DFID staff but are useful for all practitioners in M&E of information and communication in international development. The guidelines introduce a range of approaches for practitioners to choose from at various stages in your program. Contents: Forward: About these guidelines, Section 1: Before You Start, Section 2: Planning and Budgeting, Section 3: Formative Appraisal, Section 4: Process Evaluation, Section 5: Measuring Impacts and Outcomes, Section 6: The Tools of Good Practice, Section 7: Useful Websites and Further Reading, Appendix

German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)

German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. Evaluation Reports (2003~present). [Webpage]. Bonn: BMZ. Available online at:

Evaluation reports present the key results of an evaluation of development activities, programs and projects conducted since 2003. They are intended to provide information for the participants in an evaluation, in particular decision-makers, including those from the BMZ, the development partners and the implementing organizations and all the interested members of the public.

New Zealand’s International Aid and Development Agency (NZAID)

New Zealand’s International Aid and Development Agency. Evaluation Policy and Guidelines. [Webpage]. Wellington: NZAID. Available online at:

Evaluation Policy

NZAID’s evaluation policy statement outlines the roles and responsibilities related to evaluation in NZAID, the principles and criteria used for evaluation and the systems for management and use of the information generated. A set of practice guidelines supports implementation of the policy.

Evaluation Guidelines

The purpose of NZAID’s Evaluation Guidelines is to assist programme teams at NZAID to work effectively with stakeholders and partners when planning, commissioning, undertaking, reporting and following-up on reviews and evaluations.

Planning Evaluations

Commissioning Evaluations

Undertaking Evaluations

Reporting Evaluations

Following-up Evaluations

New Zealand’s International Aid and Development Agency. Review and Evaluation Reports. [Webpage]. Wellington: NZAID. Available online at:

Evaluation reports from 2002 – present.

New Zealand’s International Aid and Development Agency. (2007). Tool Clusters: Activity Cycle Tools. [Webpage]. Wellington: NZAID. Available online at:

The purpose of these articles is to assist programme teams at NZAID to work effectively with stakeholders and partners when planning, commissioning, undertaking, reporting and following-up on reviews and evaluations.

Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad)

Jerve, M., & Villanger, E. (2008). The Challenge of Assessing Aid Impact: A Review of Norwegian Evaluation Practice. Oslo: Norad. Retrieved from:

The aim of this report is to contribute to a discussion on how to strengthen the evaluation practice of Norwegian aid. Norwegian aid authorities, in recent policy documents, emphasise the need for improved methods for assessing impacts of development aid. The issue is also one of setting sound and realistic objectives for aid. The report (1) reviews recent Norwegian aid evaluations with an explicit mandate to study impact, and assesses how the evaluators establish causal effects in their analyses, and (2) provides recommendations for how to improve the quality of aid impact evaluations.

Lexow, J., Hansen, S. (2005). Gender and Development: A review of evaluation reports 1997-2004. Oslo: Norad. Retrieved from:

This report presents the outcome of a review of the gender perspectives in 63 evaluation reports produced during the years 1997-2004. 24 of these were pre-selected by Norad for in-depth review. All the evaluation reports were reviewed by a set of questions designed to verify gender mainstreaming in evaluation design and implementation:

  • How has the gender perspective been reflected with reference to designs of evaluations?
  • To what extent has a gender perspective been integrated into the Terms of Reference (ToR) for the evaluations?
  • Regarding the evaluation methodology chosen, has the gender perspective been reflected?
  • To what extent has there been attention to gender when interviewees have been selected?
  • To what extent has gender been an issue regarding the composition of the evaluation teams?

Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. (2006). Evaluation of Norwegian Development Cooperation: Annual Report. Oslo: Norad. Retrieved from:

This annual report presents the most important lessons learned from our evaluation activities in 2006. It singles out four main findings from the whole range of evaluation projects, and then presents the main conclusions in each valuation. Also, an overview of the efforts being made to follow up the evaluations is presented. Results are documented both in connection with individual projects and programmes and at the macro level.

Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. Publications on Norwegian Development Aid. [Webpage]. Oslo: Norad: Available online at:

On this website one will find a survey of printed and electronic publications concerning Norwegian development aid. The publications are published either by Norad, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Norad's partners.

Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research (NIBR) & Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI). (2007). Evaluation of the Development Cooperation through Norwegian NGOs in Guatemala. Oslo: Norad. Retrieved from:

This is an evaluation of official Norwegian development cooperation with Guatemala, with the objective of supporting the implementation of the Peace Accords. The Appendix of the report addresses the outcomes of the Norwegian NGO aid at the national level, as well as on analyzing the mediating and contextual factors that influence the implementation and outcomes of the development programs carried out by Norwegian NGOs and their partners. It further asks for an analysis of a number of process factors, from the underlying program theory of interventions, through development inputs, to implementation and outputs.

Oxford Policy Management. (2008). Evaluation of Norwegian Development Support to Zambia (1991 – 2005). Oslo: Norad. Retrieved from:

This is an evaluation of Norwegian development cooperation with Zambia between 1991 and 2005. The evaluation tries to bring together the criteria of relevance, effectiveness, impact and sustainability with an analysis of formal and informal power and political structures. The criteria is used to examine why the objectives of aid policies and development cooperation may have been undermined by formal politics, informal networks of actors and personal interests, leading to lack of progress in achieving sustainable development and poverty reduction.

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)

Molund, S., & Schill, G. (2004). Looking Back, Moving Forward - Sida Evaluation Manual. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Retrieved from:

This is a manual for evaluation of development interventions. It is intended primarily for Sida staff, but may also be useful to Sida’s co-operation partners and independent evaluators engaged to evaluate activities supported by Sida. It consists of two main parts. The first deals with the concept of evaluation, roles and relationships in evaluation, and the evaluation criteria and standards of performance employed in development co-operation. The second is a step-by-step guide for Sida programme officers and others involved in the management of evaluations initiated by Sida or its partners.

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Evaluations. [Webpage]. Stockholm: Sida Available online at:

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. (2003). Logical Framework Approach. Stockholm: Sida. Retrieved from:

The aim of this booklet is to provide practical guidance for Sida partners in project planning procedures. It contains a description of the theory of LFA, which summarises approaches and principles, the different planning steps and how they can be implemented - as well as the roles of different stakeholders in a planning procedure.

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Studies. [Webpage]. Stockholm: Sida. Available online at:

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Studies in Evaluation. [Webpage]. Stockholm: Sida. Available online at:

United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

Clapp–Wincek, C., & Blue, R. (2001). Evaluation of Recent USAID Evaluation Experience. (Working Paper No. 320). Washington DC: USAID, Center for Development Information and Evaluation. Retrieved from:

This study was requested by USAID’s Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE) to evaluate the Agency’s recent experience with evaluation. The study period begins in 1995 when Agency policy changed from requiring every project be evaluated to recommending that evaluations only be done in response to management need. The key questions of this evaluation are what have been the quantity, quality, and results of evaluations in USAID since that time.

Deliver Project, USAID. (2009). Logistics System Assessment Tool. (Task Order 1). Arlington: USAID. Retrieved from:

The Logistics System Assessment Tool (LSAT) is one of two data-gathering tools (with the Logistics Indicators Assessment Tool) developed by the DELIVER project to assess a logistics system and the system’s environment. The LSAT is a diagnostic and monitoring tool that can be used to complete an annual assessment or as an integral part of the work planning process. The information collected using the LSAT is analyzed to identify issues and opportunities and, from those, to outline further assessment and/or appropriate interventions.

Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance. (2006). Conflict Sensitive M&E Methods and Tools in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: A Working Meeting for Practitioners, Program Managers and Experts. Washington DC: USAID. Retrieved from:

This file is summary of the working meeting held by USAID. Presenters from Mercy Corps, CARE, IRC and USAID provided examples of their M&E work in complex humanitarian environments at the meeting, and representatives from American University, World Vision and USAID discussed how they had adapted M&E systems for use in conflict countries. They addressed some lessons-learned and suggestions for future efforts. Specific contexts were addressed and methods that were used to link these monitoring systems to the larger conflict context or ways to incorporate peace process indicators into work in these environments. Highlighted were the various methods used in these places to identify impact and influence on the environment and the limitations of doing this through current program design.

Rehle, T., Saidel, T., Mills, S., Magnani, R. (Eds.) (2006). Handbook for Program Managers and Decision Makers: Evaluating Programs for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care in Developing Countries. Arlington: Family Health International, USAID. Retrieved from:

The focus of this Handbook is on evaluating programs related to the sexual transmission of HIV. It was developed for a target audience of program managers and decision makers of service delivery programs as opposed to researchers who are evaluating the efficacy of interventions through experimental or quasi-experimental research methods.

Snow, J. (2002). Description of Indicators. Arlington: DELIVER Inc., for USAID. Retrieved from: http://deliver.jsm/dlvr_content/resources/allpubs/guidelines/DescIndi.pdf

This document explains indicators which can be measured using data collected from the Logistics Indicators Assessment Tool (LIAT).

Snow, J. (2005). Logistics Indicators Assessment Tool. Arlington: DELIVER Inc., for USAID. Retrieved from:

The Logistics Indicators Assessment Tool (LIAT), a quantitative data collection instrument developed by USAID | DELIVER PROJECT, is used to conduct a facility-based survey to assess health commodity logistics system performance and commodity availability at health facilities. The LIAT can be used to monitor the performance of certain processes involved in the logistics management of health commodities over time, to evaluate certain outcomes of logistics interventions, to provide ongoing supervision and performance monitoring, and to monitor commodity availability.

United States Agency for International Development, Development Experience System. [Online Database]. Washington DC: USAID. Available online at:

Publications can be searched according to subject and document type, including evaluation.

Regional & International Institutions


EuropeAID. Evaluation Methods. [Webpage]. Luxembourg: Office for the Publications of the European Communities. Available online at:

  • EVALUATION GUIDES: for geographical and thematic evaluations, for evaluation managers or evaluators; and for project and programme evaluations, including checklists
  • METHODOLOGICAL BASES: subject, timing, utilisation, roles, method
  • TOOLS: to structure an evaluation, to collect and analyse data, to assist the formulation of judgements
  • OVERALL ASSESSMENT: the development of these documents has been accompanied by a group of international evaluation experts. Please read their assessment

EuropeAID. (2006). Evaluation Methods for the European Union’s External Assistance: Methodological Bases for Evaluation, Vol. 1. Luxembourg: Office for the Publications of the European Communities. Retrieved from:

This document presents most of what needs to be known in order to manage or to carry out an evaluation, using a standardized terminology in three languages (English, Spanish and French) that contributes towards the OECD Development Aid Committee's efforts at harmonization (see p. 92). It offers complete, concrete and tested solutions to many common problems, including the most difficult ones, such as clarifying the intervention rationale, formulating evaluation questions, designing a method and analyzing the impacts.

EuropeAID. (2006). Evaluation Methods for the European Union’s External Assistance: Guidelines for Project and Programme Evaluation, Vol. 3. Luxembourg: Office for the Publications of the European Communities. Retrieved from:

This volume completes and updates the project evaluation manual previously used by the European Commission. It is intended primarily for the evaluation of large projects and of programmes involving similar projects in several countries. The manual proposes a fairly structured approach incorporating some of the European Commission's developments in the evaluation of more complex interventions, as well as good practices identified among other donors. The user can nevertheless simplify the approach in the case of a single project.

EuropeAID. (2006). Evaluation Methods for the European Union’s External Assistance: Evaluation Tools, Vol. 4. Luxembourg: Office for the Publications of the European Communities. Retrieved from:

This volume presents the main techniques for structuring an evaluation, collecting and analyzing data, and assistance in formulating judgements of development aid projects. The 12 tools proposed in this document have been tested in evaluations undertaken for the European Commission and for other institutions.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Binnendijk, A. (2000). Effective Practices in Conducting a Multi-Donor Evaluation. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

This publication provides guidance on how to plan and conduct a joint evaluation of development programmes when more than one donor agency is involved. The emphasis is on practical guidance, and it will serve as a useful tool for those who seek to promote joint evaluation and collaboration among development co-operation agencies. Such evaluations are becoming increasingly important at a time when the implementation of the partnership strategy is taking ever deeper root in the management cultures of agencies. With the enhanced role of partnership in the implementation of development programmes we can expect a growing demand for joint evaluation and for lessons learned from various modalities of jointly implemented development co-operation. In this light, the guidance provided in this report should be useful over the coming years.

Development Assistance Committee. (2006). DAC Evaluation Quality Standards. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

These standards are intended to provide standards for the process (conduct) and products (outputs) of evaluations; the comparison of evaluations across countries (meta-evaluation); facilitate partnerships and collaboration on joint evaluations; better enable member countries to make use of each others” evaluation findings and reports (including good practice and lessons learned); and streamline evaluation efforts.

Development Assistance Committee. (1999). Evaluating Country Programmes, Vienna Workshop. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

This publication provides a unique overview of approaches and methods for country development programme evaluation. It contains: i) an analytical review of the workshop’s main findings; ii) an overview of the state of-the-art approaches and methodologies used for country programme evaluations; and iii) the case studies, which were presented and discussed at the workshop.

Development Assistance Committee. (2001). Evaluation Feedback for Effective Learning and Accountability. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

This publication is composed of two parts: The Workshop Report, based on the fore-mentioned meeting, highlights the various issues raised, topics of discussion and different feedback systems, and outlines the areas identified by participants as most relevant for improving evaluation feedback. The Background Synthesis Report, intended as a starting point for discussion at the workshop, outlines the main concerns and challenges facing evaluation feedback and the means to address these. The report is based on an analysis of questionnaire results, and a review of previous initiatives in this area.

Development Assistance Committee. Evaluation Resource Centre. [Webpage] Paris: OECD. Available online at:

This website gives access to evaluation reports published by the Network and its members.

Development Assistance Committee. (2006). Evaluation Systems and Use: a Working Tool for Peer Reviews and Assessments. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

The attached assessment framework has been developed by the Network to strengthen the evaluation function and to promote transparency and accountability within development agencies. It is intended for use as a “living” working tool in future assessments of evaluation systems as part of the DAC Peer Reviews - the only internationally agreed mechanism to assess the overall performance of OECD members” development cooperation programmes.

Development Assistance Committee. (2008). Incentives for Aid Effectiveness in Donor Agencies: Good Practice and Self-Assessment Tool. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

This guidance is for all different types of donor agencies; including both multilateral and bilateral donors, small or large, integrated within a Ministry of Foreign Affairs or standalone, part of a complex administrative set-up or single agency. They are designed to be flexible and allow for possible adaptation and expansion to non-traditional donors and foundations. While the Paris Declaration clearly commits both donors and partner countries to strengthen their incentive system, the guidance has been written for donor agencies only, not partner governments.

Development Assistance Committee. Key Network documents, publications and workshops. [Webpage]. Paris: OECD. Available online at:

This website is designed to improve information exchange and knowledge sharing.

United Nations


Food and Agriculture Association of the United Nations. (1999). Filling the Data Gap: Gender-sensitive statistics for agricultural development. Rome: Food and Agriculture Association of the United Nations. Retrieved from:

This publication summarizes available, albeit limited, global and regional gender-related information pertinent to FAO's mandate. It discusses methodological and measurement issues, identifies data gaps and highlights the efforts that are still needed to improve the availability of data necessary for a better understanding of gender issues in rural and agricultural development, particularly in the developing countries.


AIDS Strategy and Action Plan (ASAP). (2007). HIV/AIDS Strategic Self-Assessment Tool (SAT): Guidelines for Evaluating HIV/AIDS Strategies and Action Plan. (Version 9). Washington DC: UNAIDS, ASAP. Retrieved from:

These guidelines are intended to be used together with the SAT. The guidelines present the user with the list of questions in the SAT. Each question is then explained in greater detail. Following most explanations, there are also a set of “guideposts”. These guideposts suggest selected key additional references for readers who wish to know more about any particular topic.

Alando, C. (2005). Evaluation of the UNAIDS/UNITAR AIDS Competence Program. New York: UNAIDS, UNITAR. Retrieved from:

This evaluation measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the AIDS Competence Programme's process and outcomes. The evaluation's approach relies both on methods used in AIDS programme evaluations, and accepted sociological evaluation methods that define community capacity or the individual capacity (i.e., economic, social, pedagogical and politically related outcomes). The AIDS Competence Programme's potential to achieve impact is also examined. It should be noted that the evaluation of specific community interventions where the AIDS Competence Programme is used, e.g., in prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes, and the evaluation of the global AIDS Competence Programme follow significantly different approaches, as outlined later in this report.

Asian Development Bank, UNAIDS, Futures Group, International and Ease International (2004). Costing Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Intervention Strategies. (First Edition). Geneva & Manila: UNAIDS, ADB. Retrieved from:

This booklet provides assistance and guidance to planners and programme managers at country level in costing selected HIV/AIDS interventions while staying focused on the overall goals to halt and reverse the epidemic. It provides the scheme for Rapid Costing Assessments (RCAs) including a spreadsheet (INPUT) for generating local data on unit costs.

ITAD & HLSP (2008). Inception Report, the Second Independent Evaluation of UNAIDS 2002-2008. New York: UN, UNAIDS. Retrieved from:

This report sets out the objectives and design of the second independent evaluation of UNAIDS, based on the terms of reference and the approach presented by the evaluation team (ET) in their technical proposal. Following a brief overview of the context within which UNAIDS is operating, the report summarizes the purpose and scope of the evaluation, describes the evaluation design and provides details about the proposed plan of work.

UNAIDS. (2000). Costing Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies. Geneva: UNAIDS. Retrieved from:

The specific aim of these Guidelines is to encourage and enable managers of HIV prevention projects and programmes to conduct cost analysis. These Guidelines relate the costing methodology presented in the PHC Manual and adapted to HIV prevention activities. These Guidelines can be used to assess projects/programmes at national, regional, district and community levels. We do not assume any prior experience or training in economics for users of these Guidelines. Detailed exercises to practice concepts of cost analysis are found at the back of the PHC Manual.


UNDP. (2001). Development Effectiveness- Review of Evaluative Evidence. New York: UN, United Nations Development Program. Retrieved from:

This report represents an in-depth analysis of UNDP programmes and projects, encompassing a range of innovative programme-based indicators that provide key information on issues ranging from relevance to the sustainability of our work across a network of more than 130 country offices. It pays particular attention to issues of effective upstream assistance (or policy and institutional support to developing country governments) and national ownership — two of the most critical dimensions by which to measure strengths and weaknesses of the UNDP programmes.

UNDP. Evaluation Resource Center. [Webpage]. New York: UN. Available online at:

ERC is an on-line based Information Management System, which facilitates UNDP's effort to strategically plan and effectively use evaluations for accountability, management for results, and knowledge management.

UNDP. (2008). Human Development Report Statistical Tools and Data. [Webpage]. New York: UN, United Nations Development Program. Available online at:

Each year the Human Development Report (HDR) presents a wealth of statistical information on different aspects of human development. All these data are available for download here in several different ways, including:

Statistical Update 2008

With new and improved data, UNDP’s Human Development Index 2008 shows an upwards trend in human development through 2006, that had been fueled by improvements in economic performance and education for most countries worldwide — the Index includes three more countries this year.

Get data by country, indicator or table from the 2007/2008 Report

You may either select a country to see all its data from the indicator tables of the Report or view the data by a specific indicator for all countries. Alternately, you may access the 32 indicator tables in the most recent Human Development Report, in either Excel or PDF format, and view them on-screen or download the data for future reference.

Build your own tables

Complete flexibility–choose the countries and indicators you are interested in and download formatted tables, either on-screen or to Excel, using our most recently published data.


UN Evaluation Group. (2005). Norms for Evaluation in the UN System. New York: United Nations. Retrieved from:

The norms seek to facilitate system-wide collaboration on evaluation by ensuring that evaluation entities within the UN follow agreed-upon basic principles. They provide a reference for strengthening, professionalizing and improving the quality of evaluation in all entities of the United Nations system.

UN Evaluation Group. (2005). Standards for Evaluation in the UN System. New York: United Nations. Retrieved from:

These standards build upon the Norms for Evaluation for the UN system. They are drawn from best practice of UNEG members. They are intended to guide the establishment of the institutional framework, management of the evaluation function, conduct and use of evaluations.


United Nations Population Fund. (2004). The Program Manager’s Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation Toolkit. New York: UNFPA.

The toolkit is a supplement to the UNFPA programming guidelines. It provides guidance and options for UNFPA Country Office staff to improve planning, monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) activities in the context of results based programme management. It is also useful for programme managers at headquarters and for national programme managers and counterparts.

Toolkit 1: Glossary of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Terms

Toolkit 2: Defining Evaluation

Toolkit 3: Purposes of Evaluation

Toolkit 4: Stakeholder Participation in Monitoring and Evaluation

Toolkit 5.1: Planning Evaluations

Toolkit 5.2: Defining Evaluation Questions and Measurement Standards

Toolkit 5.3: The Data Collection Process

Toolkit 5.4: Managing the Evaluation Process

Toolkit 5.5: Communicating and Using Evaluation Results

Toolkit 5.6: Evaluation Standards

Toolkit 6.1: Identifying Output Indicators - The Basic Concepts

Toolkit 6.2: Indicators for Reducing Maternal Mortality


United Nations Children’s Fund. Evaluation and Research Database (2000~present). [Webpage]. New York: UNICEF. Available online at:

This database contains abstracts and full text reports of evaluations, studies and surveys related to UNICEF programs that are in compliance with UNICEF Evaluation Report Standards.


Saltmarshe, D., & Kouvo, S. (2007). Evaluation of UNIFEM’s Programme: Supporting Women's Leadership in Rebuilding Afghanistan 2002-2006. Oslo: Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. Retrieved from:’s%20Programme.pdf

Since 2002, UNIFEM (United Nations Development Fund for Women) has been managing a multi-donor, multi-pronged program in Afghanistan focused on building women’s leadership in the reconstruction of the country. The main objective of the program is to increase options and opportunities of Afghan women to transform the overall development of Afghanistan into a more equitable and sustainable process. This evaluation was undertaken over a three week period in June 2007 and addresses the following areas:

  1. Assess the extent to which anticipated outcomes have been achieved;
  2. Assess the sustainability of program accomplishments;
  3. Identify performance and management-related strengths and weaknesses;
  4. Consolidate lessons learned and partners” feedback

World Bank

Bamberger, M. (2006). Conducting Quality Impact Evaluations under Budget, Time and Data Constraints. Washington DC: World Bank’s Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) and the Poverty Analysis, Monitoring and Impact Evaluation Thematic Group (PREM Network). Retrieved from:

Rigorous impact evaluation is a type of evaluation which has received an increasing level of attention in recent years. It includes randomized or quasi-experimental evaluation designs, and entails the most rigorous statistical analysis of project impacts and the contribution of other factors. The advantage of this type of evaluation is its reliability in terms of being able to identify and attribute the performance of the program or activity being evaluated. But it is also a costly type of evaluation. This booklet provides advice for those planning an impact evaluation so they can select the most rigorous methods available within the constraints they face; the various trade-offs between rigor and cost, time and data availability are examined.

Schnell, S. (2003). Participation in Monitoring and Evaluation of PRSPs- A Document Review of Trends and Approaches Emerging from 21 Full PRSPs. Washington DC: World Bank, The Participation and Civic Engagement Group Social Development Department. Retrieved from:

This paper is intended to be a first step in a comprehensive review of participation in monitoring and evaluation of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP). It represents a desk review of existing documents, with a focus on 211 Full PRSPs, as well as Joint Staff Assessments and M & E strategies where available, complemented with information from related documents available in the Participation and Civic Engagement group database. On this basis, it tries to draw some conclusions and make recommendations for operationalizing and embedding participation in Monitoring and Evaluation of PRSP, for deepening and extending the analysis and for a continuous review of Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of PRSP.

White, H. (2006). Impact Evaluation – the Experience of the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank. Washington DC: The World Bank, Independent Evaluation Group. Retrieved from:

Impact evaluation is an assessment of the impact of an intervention on final welfare outcomes. However, the meaning of impact evaluation has taken on different meanings over time, and there continue debates as to how it should be done. This document tries to define impact evaluation, addresses two problems which arise when attempting to evaluate impacts, and discusses alternative approaches for rigorous impact evaluation in more detail.

World Bank Operations Evaluation Department. (2004). Books, Buildings, and Learning Outcomes: An Impact Evaluation of World Bank Support to Basic Education in Ghana. (Report No. 28779) Washington DC: World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department. Retrieved from:

The main questions addressed in the OED study are: (1) what has happened to educational outputs (school attendance and learning); (2) what are the main determinants of those outputs; (3) which educational interventions have the largest and most cost effective impact on educational outputs; (4) to what extent have Bank-supported activities promoted interventions which support improved educational outputs; and (5) how do improved educational outputs support better welfare outcomes? These questions were addressed through a variety of means, including a nationwide survey carried out by OED in collaboration with Ghana Statistical Service and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The survey followed up on a living standards survey conducted in 1988 that included data on test score outcomes and school quality. The study is thus in a unique position to analyze school-level changes over the 15 year period, 1988-2003.

World Bank Operations Evaluation Department. (2005). Maintaining Momentum towards the MDGs: An Impact Evaluation of Interventions to Improve Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Outcomes in Bangladesh. Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. Retrieved from:

This study is the second in a series of three impact studies being conducted by OED under a DFID-OED partnership agreement. In these studies OED is exploring different ways of carrying out ex post impact analysis in cases for which no impact evaluation framework was put in place at the start of the intervention. For the first study, of Ghana basic education (World Bank, 2004), a survey was commissioned to follow on from a nationally representative household and school survey conducted fifteen years earlier. This second study is based on existing data sets: the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys, the Household Income and Expenditure Survey, two data sets related to the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project - the evaluation data set and that collected by Save the Children - and data from Helen Keller International's Nutritional Surveillance Project.

Other Development-Related Publications

African Evaluation Association. (2002). African Evaluation Guidelines. Cairo: African Evaluation Association. Retrieved from:

AfrEA was founded in 1999 as an umbrella association for African Evaluators from every development-oriented discipline. A review of the US “Program Evaluation Standards”, undertaken in a series of workshops and meetings of networks of evaluators in Africa, resulted in modifications to those standards. In this regard, this paper describes the process used to produce a set of African Evaluation Guidelines. The goal was to produce a set of Guidelines that are adopted by African evaluators and governments for evaluation of development programmes in Africa.

Ajmera, M. & Dunning, V. (2010). Making Metrics Work for Small Grantmakers.” Alliance. Special Issue, Focus on Chasing the Butterfly: Why Small Grants Matter, 15(1), 50-51.

Columbia Center for the Study of Development Strategies. “Evaluation Strategies.” Columbia University.

International Center for Research on Women. (2007). A Measure of Success: Building Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity in Small, Community-Based Programs. Washington DC: ICRW. Retrieved from:

ICRW partnered with three NGOs in India to shore up their M&E capacity. ICRW and the partners worked collaboratively to plan and implement simple and affordable M&E approaches for their current and future adolescent reproductive health projects. This document is a summary of the processes used, key achievements, challenges, and questions that arose in building M&E program capacity for these NGOs.

International Development Research Centre. Evaluation Methodologies. [Webpage]. Ottawa: IDRC. Available online at:

International Development Research Centre. Evaluation Publications. [Webpage]. Ottawa: IDRC. Available online at:

Links to articles, books, interviews, and workshop and conference presentations and reports.

Iverson, A. (2003). Attribution and Aid Evaluation in International Development: A Literature Review. Ottawa: IDRC. Retrieved from:

Several objectives guide this literature review. Principally, it aims to shed light on the problems involved in attributing results within aid evaluation research. In doing so, it synthesizes the perspectives of 'frontline' and academic experts working within the field. Drawing on prominent past and contemporary writing, the first part of the review provides a brief, 'purposive' history of evaluation research generally, and 'aid evaluation' specifically.

Jobin, D. (2008). A Transaction Cost Based Approach to Program Evaluation: Partnership’s Performance Assessment. Evaluation, 14 (4), 437-465. Retrieved from:

Partnerships between governments, NGOs and the private sector have become key tools in delivering programs, but evaluators and auditors face very real challenges in attempting to assess their performance. This paper suggests one powerful way of evaluating partnerships: transaction cost economics (TCE). This paper introduces the TC framework, identifies relevant factors affecting partnership performance, and shows how the framework may be applied to assess performance.

Kane, T. (2004). Assessment of Atlantic Philanthropies” Support for Health Sector in Viet Nam: 1998-2003. New York: Atlantic Philanthropies. Retrieved from:

This assessment reviews the program of support of Atlantic Philanthropies to the Health Sector of Vietnam for the past five years, from 1998 through April 2004. The focus of this assessment is on the Atlantic-supported Da Nang, Hue and Quang Tri hospitals new building construction and renovation projects; the Atlantic supported humanitarian projects carried out by East Meets West Foundation (Da Nang and Quang Tri offices), the program of support to Heart Institute in HCMC, and selected other projects such as capacity-building and health professional training projects in Da Nang City, and the Kids First Village project in Dong Ha Village. The report describes the activities, achievements, budgets, project impact, challenges, funding leverage gained from Atlantic support and the recommendations for future financial and program support.

Khan, K. (2003). Strengthening of Monitoring and Evaluation System. Islamabad: Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund. Retrieved from:

The article describes the concept of M&E system and the process through which foundation of an effective M&E system could be laid in development sector organizations. Its main focus is on management rather than technical issues such as M&E tools or research instruments. However, it highlights the need and usefulness of setting M&E standards and automation through MIS for strengthening the M&E system at an advanced stage of system development subject to affordability and capacity.

Kramer, M. & Preskill, H. (2010). What David Could Teach Goliath. Alliance. Special Issue, Focus on Chasing the Butterfly: Why Small Grants Matter, 15(1), 52.

Nash, R., Hudson, A., & Lutrell, C. (2006). Mapping political context - A toolkit for civil society organisations. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI). Retrieved from:

Toolkit for civil society organisations that can be used to understand and map political context. This involves identifying and describing those elements of the political world power, organisations and rules that shape the way in which policy processes work. Mapping political context can help CSOs to devise more effective strategies to influence policies. The report presents a number of tools which deal with various dimensions of political context. Thus various different approaches to mapping political context are discussed, so that CSOs can select those tools that they find most useful and use them in a way that suits their needs.

For each tool, the report presents:

  • a description
  • an outline of how the tool works
  • three aspects of the tool that are of particular interest to CSOs:
    • conceptual approach and indicators;
    • methods for sourcing and collecting data;
    • data analysis, presentation and recommendation.

Schell, A., & Coetzee, E. (2007). Monitoring government policies. A toolkit for civil society organisations in Africa. London: Christian Aid, Catholic Agency for Overseas Development, Trocaire. Retrieved from:

Christian Aid, Catholic Agency for Overseas development and Trocaire created this toolkit with the aim of assisting NGOs to monitor government policies. It is especially designed to help African civil society organisations analyse and monitor government policy implementation.

This toolkit provides a step approach, offering information, ideas, examples and methods on how to collect evidence about policies and how to use this evidence by lobbying for change. The structure of the toolkit matches the main steps of policy monitoring process.

The first step provides information on how to get started. The second step focuses on choosing policies and collecting information and the third concentrates on identifying policy stakeholders. Step four and five concentrate on the policy and setting a focus. Steps six and seven focus on gathering evidence in policy implementation and using this policy evidence to advocate for change.

Yinger, N., Peterson, A., Avni, M., Gay, J., & Firestone, R. (2002). A Framework to Identify Gender Indicators for Reproductive Health and Nutrition Programming. (Prepared under the auspices of the Interagency Gender Working Group, Subcommittee on Research and Indicators.) Washington DC: Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved from:

The focus of this framework is at the level of interventions, not changes in behavior or health status at the population level, such as would be measured in a Demographic and Health Survey. It provides resources on a wide range of population and health indicators, including their gender implications, the core survey questionnaire and the gender module, which provides data at the population level.


(See also the publication databases for aid and donor agencies. These are listed first under each of the various agency sub-headings.)

The Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP). (2005). Assessing the Quality of Humanitarian Evaluations: The ALNAP Quality Performa. (v. 02/03/05). London: Alnap. Retrieved from:

This draws on current thinking on evaluation of humanitarian action and what is commonly accepted as good practice. Its primary purpose is to underpin the annual meta-evaluation of evaluation of humanitarian action reports completed and made available in the preceding year.

Bolton, P., Bass, J., Murray, L., Lee, K., Weiss W., & McDonnell, SM. (2007). Expanding the scope of humanitarian program evaluation. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 22(5), 390–395. Retrieved from:

The effectiveness of humanitarian programs normally is evaluated according to a limited number of pre-defined objectives. These objectives typically represent only selected positive expected impacts of program interventions and as such, are inadequate benchmarks for understanding the overall effectiveness of aid. This is because programs also have unexpected impacts (both positive and negative) as well as expected negative impacts and expected positive impacts beyond the program objectives. This paper includes examples of the use of this methodology in the field. Finally, the authors suggest future directions for improving this type of expanded assessment and advocate for its widespread use, both within and without the field of disaster response.

CARE International. (2000). Care Impact Guidelines. Atlanta: CARE International. Retrieved from:

This document represents the fruit of the work of experts in program Design, Monitoring and Evaluation (DME) of the organization. It includes the following materials: impact evaluation checklist (part I), impact indicators for Household Livelihood Security (part II), capacity assessment toolkit for Care country offices (part III), project review form (part IV). It also includes descriptions of nine case studies based on which the evaluation checklist was developed.

Feinstein, O., & Beck, T. (2006). Chapter 24: Evaluation of Development Interventions and Humanitarian Action. In Shawn, I., Greene, J., & Mark, M. (Eds.). The Sage Handbook of Evaluation. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

This handbook succeeds in capturing and presenting evaluation's extensive knowledge base within a global context. In so doing it provides a useful, coherent, and definitive benchmark on the field's diverse and dynamic purposes, practices, theories, approaches, issues, and challenges for the 21st century. This book is for practicing evaluators, academics, advanced postgraduate students, and evaluation clients and offers a definitive, benchmark statement on evaluation theory and practice for the first decade of the 21st century.

Hofmann, C., Roberts, L., Shoham, J., & Harvey, P. (2004). Measuring the Impact of Humanitarian Aid. (HPG Report 17). London: ODI, Humanitarian Policy Group. Retrieved from:

This report is concerned with how the impact of humanitarian aid can be measured, why this is increasingly being demanded and whether it is possible to do it better.

International Test and Evaluation Program for Humanitarian Demining. (2008). ITEP Work Plan 2008: Portfolio of the ITEP Participants” test and evaluation. Belgium: ITEP. Retrieved from:

This document reflects the ongoing and planned national or collaborative projects among the ITEP Participants. It is complemented by the ITEP Work Plan 2000 – 2007, which summarizes (including conclusions) all test and evaluation activities by the ITEP Participants since the creation of ITEP, and that were completed by the end of 2007.

Nelson, J. (International Rescue Committee). (2008). Program Evaluation: Are we ready for RCTs? InterAction Monday Developments. March 2008, 28-29. Washington DC: InterAction. Retrieved from:

The International Rescue Committee (IRC) has in motion for “randomized impact evaluations,” in order to develop analysis tools which can measure the net change in outcomes for a particular group of people that can be attributed to a specific program using the best methodology available, feasible and appropriate to the evaluation question that is being investigated and to the specific context,” This article provides five of the many lessons IRC has learned through ongoing efforts in Afghanistan, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Liberia.

Oversees Development Institute. (1999). Guidance for Evaluating Humanitarian Assistance in Complex Emergencies. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:

This Guidance was commissioned by OECD-DAC and is aimed at those involved in the commissioning, design and management of evaluations of humanitarian assistance programmes principally within donor organizations but is also likely to be of use to UN agencies, NGOs and other organizations involved in the provision of humanitarian assistance. It is not intended as an exhaustive guide as specialized texts are available, but to complement the existing DAC Principles on Aid Evaluation by highlighting those areas which require special attention, the nature of the activities undertaken and the multi-actor, highly interconnected system by which the international community provides humanitarian assistance.

Roberts, L. (2004). Assessing the Impact of Humanitarian Assistance: A Review of Methods and Practices in the Health Sector. London: ODI, Humanitarian Policy Group. Retrieved from:

Shoham, J. (2004). Assessing the impact of humanitarian assistance: A review of methods in the food and nutrition sector. London: ODI, Humanitarian Policy Group. Retrieved from:

Snuggs, J. (2006). Lebanon- End of Program Evaluation. New York: IRC, AFDC. Retrieved from:

In response to the recent conflict between Israel and Lebanon, IRC began a short-term quick impact project to address the most pressing water related needs of villages in Marjayoun and Hasbaiya Cazas. The main activities consisted of the distribution of 2,000 litre household water tanks, 5kVA generators for household use and 2 month duration household hygiene kits. This report provides an evaluation of the impact of these activities.

Peace and Conflict

(See also the publication databases for aid and donor agencies. These are listed first under each of the various agency sub-headings.)

Anderson, M., Olson, L., & Doughty, K. (2003). Confronting War: Critical Lessons for Peace Practitioners. Cambridge, MA: The Collaborative for Development Action. Retrieved from:

Based on findings from an experience-based learning process that involves agencies whose programs attempt to prevent or mitigate violent conflict, this book identifies lessons in the three following areas which can improve effectiveness in international peace-building efforts: factors critical to conflict analysis, approaches to setting appropriate goals and planning programs, and systems for monitoring and assessing outcomes and impacts.

Austin, A., Fischer, M., & Wils, O. (Eds.). (2004). Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment- Critical Views on Theory and Practice. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management. Retrieved from:

This online article is the collection of articles and response papers concerning the Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) issue. This online publication represents debates on the issue among scholars and practitioners involved in peacebuilding and/or development cooperation. Mark Hoffman (Lecturer in International Relations and Dean of Undergraduate Studies at the London School of Economics) starts the debate with presenting comprehensive methodology for ongoing PCIA projects, followed by five response papers encompassing methodologies, tools, and action evaluation.

Brusset, E., Roalkvam, S., Hoffman, M., Mattsson, A., & Vaux, T. (2009). Evaluation of the Norwegian Research and Development Activities in Conflict Prevention and Peace-building. Oslo: Norad. Retrieved from:

This evaluation aims at assessing the contributions of the four most important Norwegian research institutions to the Norwegian conflict prevention and peacebuilding efforts and the relationship between the Government and the institutions.

The activities evaluated are those of the Christian Michelsen Institute (CMI), Norwegian Institute for International Affairs (NUPI), Fafo Applied International Studies (Fafo) , and Peace Research Institute of Oslo (PRIO), funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Research Council of Norway, or by Norad, over the period 2002-2007.

Bush, K. (2003). A Measure of Peace: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment of Development Projects in Conflict Zones. (Working Paper No. 1). Ottawa: IDRC. Retrieved from:

This Working Paper is intended to be a contribution to the development of a more systematic and self-conscious means of assessing approaches to development work in violence prone regions. It is a work in progress—with all the consequent advantages and disadvantages of this format. Having been written by a “recovering academic,” its strength and its weakness is an emphasis on the analytical dimensions of the assessment process. While it draws on interviews and experiences in the field, it is hoped that its circulation more broadly among the community of practitioners and policy makers will elicit (or provoke) inputs and insights from the immediate realities and requirements of their work environments. The next iteration of this study will integrate these various contributions, and be cast in a more user-friendly handbook for use by development workers.

Dahlberg, L., Toal S., Swahn, M., & Behrens, C. (2005). Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools, (2nd Ed). Atlanta: Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved from:

This compendium provides researchers and prevention specialists with a set of tools to assess violence-related beliefs, behaviors, and influences, as well as to evaluate programs to prevent youth violence. Most of the measures in this compendium are intended for use with youths between the ages of 11 and 24 years, to assess such factors as serious violent and delinquent behavior, conflict resolution strategies, social and emotional competencies, peer influences, parental monitoring and supervision, family relationships, exposure to violence, collective efficacy, and neighborhood characteristics.

Department for International Development. (2002). Conducting Conflict Assessments: Guidance Notes. London: Department for International Development. Retrieved from:$File/DFID_ConflictAssessment.pdf?OpenElement

This booklet aims to provide staff at the Department for International Development (DFID) and partner bilateral and multilateral agencies with a resource to help: analysis of conflict and assessment of conflict related risks associated with development or humanitarian assistance. More specifically, this document introduces tools for assessing risks of negative effects of conflict on programs, risks of programs or policies exacerbating conflict, opportunities to improve the effectiveness of development interventions in contributing to conflict prevention and reduction. A methodology is presented for conflict assessment at the country or regional level, termed “Strategic Conflict Assessment”. It is based on DFID’s experience in conducting Strategic Conflict Assessments in seven countries.

Development Assistance Committee. (2008). Guidance on Evaluating Conflict and Peacebuilding Activities. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:,2834,en_21571361_34047972_39774574_1_1_1_1,00.pdf

This working draft develops guidance on conducting effective evaluations of conflict prevention and peacebuilding work. The current working draft will be used for a one year application phase through 2008. It is the result of an ongoing collaborative project by the OECD DAC Networks on Development Evaluation and on Conflict, Peace and Development Cooperation (CPDC).


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Human Rights Impact Research: A Preliminary Practice-Oriented Bibliography
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